In the 1980s, a Japanese Sinologist SUZUKI Sh𨨏ji has adopted a binary and diametric description in his publication Chinese and Japanese Literature that Chinese literature advocates「諷刺」 (satire), 「風骨」(vigor), and 「經世」(administration) , while Japanese literature upholds 「風雅」(elegancy), 「物之哀」(pathos), and 「遊戲」(entertainment), so as to emphasize the fact that Chinese literature in general stresses on political and moral factors, while the Japanese one tends to show greater concern for entertainment and sensibility. Such viewpoints represent the overall opinions of Japanese scholars. From a historical point of view, no doubt Chinese literature has a deep relation with politics, religions and ethics, and since the sprang up of Edo Nativism in the eighteenth century, Japanese literature has also cast a view similar to Chinese「道統」(Confucian orthodoxy) on politics and ethics —「古道論」 (The analects of Ancient orthodoxy), creating vast influences on modern Japanese society and culture. As an important notion in modern Japanese ideology, 「古道論」 deserves wider and deeper investigations; yet until now, it is only being discussed in the field of Japanese ideological history, and its relation with literature is not greatly valued. In this paper, we shall analyzing how Japanese Nativism in the eighteenth century established a new criticism, 「古道論」, on Japanese politics and ethics, based on a new explanation of Confucian theories, and investigate how these theories influence modern Japanese literature.