The spread of the COVID-19 poses a significant threat to global public health and society. The rapidly changing epidemic has brought significant
challenges to vaccine research and approval. This article will discuss the uncertainty of vaccine science and manufacturing technology, and the ethical issues arising from acceleration of the schedule of development and approval. This article also reflects the controversy caused by the emergency use authorization of the domestically developed COVID-19 vaccine-Medigen(MVC-COV1901), taking Onora O’Neill’s view on trust research as the main point of discussion and compare the results of international research and actual cases. We call on government departments to pay attention to accountability, gathers expert opinions to build consensus, implement public communication, and promote public engagement to rebuild trust.