Disabled elderlies and their caregivers are vulnerable and dependent persons. They have to face the situations where they cannot take food, get clothed, live by themselves, and the heavy burden of the cost of caring for chronic diseases, medical expenses, social and domestic provisions, etc.
In this essay, I have examined the discussions between Norman Daniels, Martha C. Nussbaum and Eva F. Kittay, and then adopted Kittay's idea of "dependence" and "derivative dependence" of the elderlies and their care-takers, advocating to offer them the necessary resources according to their fair equality of opportunities. But I argue that, it should be based on the difference principle, in order to establish and secure the rights of the disabled elderlies and caregivers and the reasonable sharing of care resources. For the difference principle emphasizes the caring of the most disadvantaged and disabled elderlies and they are among the most disadvantaged. Hence the difference principle could protect them and their needs most appropriately.
The present research confirms that the principle of difference can be the foundation of long-term care ethics, that it could also be used to improve feeding method to meet the health-care needs of the disabled elderly. Furthermore, I propose that if the government plans to legalize long-term care insurance, it should take the democratic procedure in dialogues with experts, scholars, pharmacy industry, relevant organizations and associations, in order to draft a proper and just long-term care program.