Judy Ongg is one of the few stars active in both Taiwan and Japan. This paper focuses on the construction of her transnational stardom from the time she began her singing and acting career in Japan in the early 1960s through to the period in the 1970s when she joined the film industry in Taiwan. By investigating the ways in which Judy Ongg’s overseas Chinese identity was perceived by the Japanese and the Taiwanese media, this paper examines how the Kuomingtang (KMT) government and the film industry in Taiwan used her star image to promote nationalist ideology and reconfigure Taiwan’s relationship with Japan during the East Asian Cold War. Building on Richard Dyer’s star theory, this paper also analyzes the polysemy of Judy Ongg’s star image. Her star image and the characters she plays in the films serve to negotiate the conflicts between political propaganda and issues of modernity. Furthermore, the “foreignness” that Judy Ongg possesses also brought a unique experience of modernity and cosmopolitanism to the Taiwanese audience during the Cold War. By analysing Judy Ongg’s star image from the 1960s to the 1970s, this paper hopes to show the complex relationships between female stardom, the Cold War, and modernity.