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第 32  期

General Article

日治時期臺灣文人的文化調和觀—從傳統文人 到新式知識份子張深切
The Cultural Blending View of the Taiwanese Intellectuals during Japanese Colonial Period
作者 簡素琤
Author Chien Su-chen
關鍵詞 靈視,典範,奧古斯丁,實體識(visio corporalis),想像識(visio spiritualis),智性識(visio intellectualis),但丁,地獄,煉獄,天堂,離世之旅,經驗的,神奇的,符號,詮釋學的,中世紀,新教的
Keywords Zhang-hua Chong-wen Sheh (彰化「崇文社」), Taiwan Wen Sheh (「臺灣文社」), Lian Herng(連橫), Chang Shen-chieh(張深切), the cultural blending model of Mei-ji enlightenment, rational critique
摘要 日治時期具啟蒙意識的傳統文人,對1910年代晚期開始的臺灣文化啟蒙運動貢獻良多。林幼春、蔡惠如、林獻堂等人,不但出錢出力推動文化啟蒙運動,彰化「崇文社」與「臺灣文社」兩大傳統文社,也大力引介西方啟蒙思想。而黃純青、魏德清、連橫等人,在融合東西文化議題上,則著墨甚多。日治時期具啟蒙意識的傳統文人,依循明治啟蒙的調和模式,試圖調和中國古代的道德生命哲學與西方現代科學理性之間的不相容,找到其融通的途徑,與五四胡適、陳獨秀等棄絕傳統儒學的方式,有基本的差異,具有同時重視道德心性之學與實利、博愛、科學及世界主義的特徵。而新式知識份子張深切,則依循此日治時期傳統文人的文化調和模式,以西方啟蒙理性批判與科學的精神為依據,重新檢視中國古代哲學流派,提出不同於胡適、梁啟超、馮友蘭等中國哲學家的文化哲學批判觀點。
Abstract The traditional intellectuals advocating Western enlightenment thinking contributed greatly to the Taiwanese enlightenment movement beginning in the late 1910s during the Japanese Colonial Period. Among them, Lin You-chun (林幼春), Tsay Huey-ru(蔡惠如)and Lin Shiahn-tang(林獻堂) especially got deeply involved in the movement by funding it and promoting the enlightenment thinking personally. Two most important traditional literary associations at that time──Zhang-hua Chong-wen Sheh (彰化「崇文社」) and Taiwan Wen Sheh (「臺灣文社」)──also dedicated to ushering in Western enlightenment thinking. Other traditional intellectuals such as Hwang Chwen-qing(黃純青), Weih Der-qing(魏德清), and, particularly, Lian Herng(連橫) focused on the subject of the cultural blending of East and West. With few exceptions, traditional intellectuals with enlightenment thinking in colonial Taiwan followed the cultural blending model of Mei-ji enlightenment thinkers(明治啟蒙者), endeavoring to find possible ways of surmounting the differences between the morality-oriented traditional Chinese philosophy and the rationality-oriented Western philosophy and modern sciences. This cultural blending model is fundamentally different from that of May Fourth enlightenment thinkers such as Hu Shi (胡適) and Chen Du-xiu (陳獨秀), which basically denounces the ethics of the traditional Confucianism. The cultural blending model of the Colonial Period in Taiwan is featured by embracing both traditional Confucianism and the concepts of utilitarianism, human love, sciences and universality descended from Western enlightenment thinking. Following the cultural blending model of the Taiwan traditional intellectuals, the modern intellectual Chang Shen-chieh(張深切)reevaluated the various ancient Chinese philosophical systems and was thus able to give a different critical stance from that of contemporary Chinese philosophical and cultural critics such as Hu Shih(胡適), Liang qi-chao(梁啟超)and Feng You-lan(馮友蘭).
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