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第 74  期

專題論文
Special Issue

  (42)
從救生艇倫理學反思COVID-19大流行時期的資源援助問題
Rethinking COVID-19 pandemic resource assistance in the context of lifeboat ethics
作者 林恩志
Author En-Chih Lin
關鍵詞 救生艇倫理學人道援助新冠肺炎加勒特.哈丁彼得.辛格
Keywords lifeboats ethics, Humanitarian aid, COVID-19 Pandemic, Garrett Hardin, Peter Singer
摘要 從2019年末開始劇烈影響世界的COVID-19大流行,讓大量的人因病喪生,也對世界各國帶來了種種嚴重的損害。在COVID-19剛發生的時期,由於世界各國的資源緊缺,而使得許多人出來呼籲,即便國內的物資仍有剩餘,政府也應該拒絕將包含醫療資源在內的物資,分享給其他需要援助的國家。這類的主張,正好與加勒特.哈丁(Garrett Hardin)提出的救生艇倫理學不謀而合。哈丁相信,在面臨資源緊缺的時候,世界上的各個國家就如同漂浮在汪洋大海上的救生艇,而身處救生艇之上的乘客,沒有義務去援救漂浮在海上的難民。為了進一步檢視「為什麼要在艱困時期援助他者」這個複雜的問題,本文選擇將哈丁的主張設為探討此一問題的定位點,並同時將彼得.辛格(Peter Singer)基於效益主義而開展的人道主義援助主張,視為對立於哈丁主張的另一個定位點,再透過對這兩種論述的分析,來重新框設對上述問題的合宜討論框架,並藉此找出探問此類問題的新設想角度。
Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic, which began to affect the world dramatically in late 2019, has killed many people and caused serious damage to countries worldwide. During this period, resource constraints around the world led many to call for governments to refuse to share resources with other countries, which coincides with the claim of Garrett Hardin’s lifeboat ethic. Hardin believes that in times of resource scarcity, all nations around the world are just like lifeboats floating on the ocean, and that the passengers in the lifeboats have no obligation to rescue the
refugees who float at sea. To further examine the complex question of 'why should we aid others in times of hardship', this thesis chooses to position Harding's argument as the locus for this question, while at the same time drawing on the work of Peter Singer. Through the analysis of these two discourses, this thesis reframing the discussion of this issue and identify new conceptual perspectives on the question.
疫病、隔離與健康
/ 黃雅嫺    Ya-Hsien Huang
1
國際公共衛生緊急事件中的政策透明度
/ 陳嘉新    Jia-shin Chen
5
效益主義的幽靈:大COVID時代的公共衛生倫理反思
/ 葉明叡、李柏翰    Ming-Jui Yeh, Po-Han Lee
21
福禍相倚的台灣後疫情挑戰:一個比較歷史的生命倫理學視角
/ 蔡篤堅    Duu-Jian Tsai
67
性哲學及其不滿──論高德曼的簡性
/ 甯應斌    Yin-Bin Ning
95
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