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第 74  期

專題論文
Special Issue

  (85)
效益主義的幽靈:大COVID時代的公共衛生倫理反思
The Specter of Utilitarianism: Reflections on Public Health Ethics in the COVID-19 Era
作者 葉明叡、李柏翰
Author Ming-Jui Yeh, Po-Han Lee
關鍵詞 公共衛生倫理效益主義COVID-19民主政治共同體
Keywords public health ethics, utilitarianism, COVID-19, democratic politics, body politics
摘要 效益主義是公共衛生政策中彷彿不證自明的倫理基礎,在各項防疫政策中尤其明顯。效益主義與民主政治有特殊連結,因效益主義式公衛政策須建立在民主政治程序所決定的效益界定和排序之上,而效益主義式公衛政策與民主共同體的目的,都包括維繫共同體的存續。我們因此對公衛政策效益主義基礎提出兩層次的批判性反思:質疑國家以效益主義之名限制個人權利的界線(第一種層次),以及論證除了單純自利的個人觀點,民主公民也要有能力將群體觀點納入倫理考量中(第二種層次)。本文以台灣實施的COVID-19隔離檢疫措施為例,主張建立政策倫理評估機制,以鍛造民主公民的群體效益思考觀點,長遠而言有利推行公衛工作,確保民主共同體的健康。
Abstract Utilitarianism seems to be a self-evident ethical basis for public health policies, particularly regarding epidemic prevention. Utilitarianism shares common features with democratic politics because utilitarian health policies must be based on the definition of utilities and a hierarchy of priorities determined through democratic political procedures. A common purpose of both utilitarian health policies and a democratic community aims to sustain the community. In this article, we thus propose a two-level critical reflection on the foundations of utilitarianism in public health policy: first, questioning the boundaries of the state’s restrictions on individual rights in the name of utilitarianism, and secondly, arguing that democratic citizens should build the ability to incorporate a solidaristic perspective into ethical considerations, in addition to individual self-interests. Take the COVID-19 quarantine measures implemented in Taiwan as an example. We call for a policy ethics assessment mechanism to forge democratic citizens’ awareness of collective interests, which shall facilitate the promotion of public health work and ensure the well-being of the democratic community in the long run.
疫病、隔離與健康
/ 黃雅嫺    Ya-Hsien Huang
1
國際公共衛生緊急事件中的政策透明度
/ 陳嘉新    Jia-shin Chen
5
從救生艇倫理學反思COVID-19大流行時期的資源援助問題
/ 林恩志    En-Chih Lin
41
福禍相倚的台灣後疫情挑戰:一個比較歷史的生命倫理學視角
/ 蔡篤堅    Duu-Jian Tsai
67
性哲學及其不滿──論高德曼的簡性
/ 甯應斌    Yin-Bin Ning
95
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