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第 43  期

專題論文
Special Issue

  (1094)
跨海演出:近代臺灣的馬戲團表演史(1900-1940年代)
Overseas Performance: History of Circus Show in Modern Taiwan (1900s-1940s)
作者 鄭麗榕
Author Li-jung Cheng
關鍵詞 馬戲團動物表演跨海巡迴表演大竹娘曲馬團矢野馬戲團木下馬戲團
Keywords circus, animal performance, overseas traveling show, Otake Girls' Circus, Yano Circus, Kinoshita Circus
摘要 馬戲團的歷史是文化傳播的歷史,其發展過程,是一連串中心向邊陲移動的歷史。本文主要運用《臺灣日日新報》的報導,補充相關人物的日記、口述歷史或回憶錄等個人資料,參考日本馬戲團史等研究成果,擬從近代臺灣的社會、經濟、政治條件,以及文化傳播的觀點,分析馬戲團表演作為一種混合多元文化的載體,如何進行跨區、跨國、跨海的巡迴演出。近代日本作為西方近代馬戲團的邊陲,不但在政治上是其帝國勢力圈的中心,經濟、文化上也常是帝國中的輸出者,殖民地臺灣可以算是其邊陲。但臺灣這個所謂的邊陲,是以什麼樣的方式,接受一個殖民母國從其他區域傳入並轉化過的表演文化?
本文首先分析馬戲團表演在臺灣興盛之前的歷史,探討日本的馬戲淵源,究明清末在臺灣的首次表演經驗。其次整理大正至昭和初年馬戲團在臺灣的表演,再討論1930年代下半至終戰期間馬戲團表演的衰微時期。最後以數個實例,回顧臺灣社會中對馬戲團表演的記憶。結語中說明,馬戲團透過對社會組織的集體動員,而能在帝國之邊陲臺灣展開巡迴表演。但由於表演活動沒有與臺灣社會結合,無法生根,因此在戰爭時期,受到經濟統制的影響,而走上衰頹萎縮的命運。雖然如此,數十年間跨海而來的表演,留下了戰後臺灣本土馬戲團誕生的引子,動物表演持續在臺灣動物園中很長的時間,直至受到動物保護運動的興起才受到挑戰。
Abstract This paper aims to analyze from the aspect of social, economic and political condition in modern Taiwan, to explore how the Japanese circus troupe as the carrier of hybrid cultures, going on tours which cross regions and beyond national borders. The article makes use of the report of Taiwan Daily New Times mainly, supplemented by the diaries, oral history or memoirs of related persons, and refers to the research on Japanese circus history. Modern Japan was not only the periphery of the Western culture, but also the center of its empire power region. It always exports its influence to the periphery of its empire in economy and culture. Because colonial Taiwan was the so-called periphery of Japanese Empire, how and what did it receive the home culture from Japan during the colonial times?

This article first analyzes the history before the bloom of circus in Taiwan, discusses the origin of Japanese circuses, probes into the first time circus performance held in Taiwan. Next it sorts out the cases of performances. Finally it uses several examples to clear up what memory remained in Taiwan about the circus performances. In conclusion, it finds that the Japanese circuses made their overseas traveling show in Taiwan by means of the mobilization of social organization. However, because of lacking in for connecting with Taiwan society, the circuses were unable to take root in Taiwan, they got weak and degenerated during the wartime. The heritage of these external circuses was a Taiwan local circus troupe founded under the influence of one of them. Besides, animal performance was held in Taiwan zoos, until the animal defense movement arose to challenge them.
電力技術者的知識來源與實踐──以《臺電社報》為主的探討(1919-1944)
/ 林蘭芳    Lan-fang Lin
47
論道統──葉適與牟宗三之道統觀析論
/ 楊自平    Tzu-ping Yang
105
羅近溪圓教思想研究
/ 謝居憲    Jue-hsien Hsieh
141
王船山論「道、善、性」之說的涵義與其理論價值
/ 陳祺助    Chi-ju Chen
185
處於倫理內在性與宗教超越性之間:胡塞爾與海德格宗教現象學之比較
/ 汪文聖    Wen-sheng Wang
227
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