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第 43  期

一般論文
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論道統──葉適與牟宗三之道統觀析論
Analysis of Confucian Dao-orthodoxy ──To Analyze Ye Shi's and Mou Tsung-san's Views of Confucian Dao-orthodoxy
作者 楊自平
Author Tzu-ping Yang
關鍵詞 道統韓愈朱子葉適牟宗三
Keywords Confucian Dao-orthodoxy, Han Yu, Zhu Xi, Ye Shi, Mou Tsung-san
摘要 道統乃儒學發展的重要議題。自孟子、韓愈提出道統說的內容,發展到南宋,出現朱子、葉適、象山不同的道統觀。本文藉由牟宗三先生《心體與性體》對葉適道統觀的批判,考察道統觀的變遷。朱子、葉適及牟氏分別建立不同體系的道統觀,即天理道統、皇極道統及內聖道統。此三系均是就傳統所理解的「道」來立論,強調「道」的根源性、無限性、道德性。牟氏對葉適的皇極道統,雖認為亦有其意義,但卻指出葉適道統觀未能植基於內聖,此外王學為無根之學,對歷史文化將造成思想災難,故牟氏提出嚴厲批判。此作法背後實有兩點深義,一是針對後世言事功、實學、樸學者,視宋明儒學言性命天道為無用,故藉批判葉適的觀點,對此系重事功的思想加以反駁並提出建言:二是牟氏實欲藉此,重新釐析道統議題,以作為現今時代之參考。
Abstract Confucian Dao-orthodoxy is an essential issue in the development of Confucianism. After Mengzi and Han Yu had mentioned the content of Confucian Dao-orthodoxy, scholars in The Southern Song Dynasty such as Zhu Xi, Ye Shi and Lu Xiang-shan also offered their perspectives of Confucian Dao-orthodoxy. This article focuses on analyzing Mou Tsung-san's criticism of Ye Shi's Confucian Dao-orthodoxy in his The Substance of Mind and the Substance of Nature, and in turn scrutinizes the change and variation of Confucian Dao-orthodoxy among the Cheng brothers, Zhu Xi, Ye Shi and Mou Tsung-san. Eventually, this article will further point out the characteristics and meanings of Ye Shi’s and Mou Tsung-san's viewpoints of Confucian Dao-orthodoxy.
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