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第 43  期

一般論文
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處於倫理內在性與宗教超越性之間:胡塞爾與海德格宗教現象學之比較
Between the Ethical Immanence and the Religious Transcendence: A Comparison between Husserl's and Heidegger's Phenomenology of Religion
作者 汪文聖
Author Wen-sheng Wang
關鍵詞 胡塞爾海德格奧古斯丁宗教現象學形式指引道成肉身
Keywords Husserl, Heidegger, Augustine, Phenomenology of Religion, Formal Indication, Incarnation
摘要 海德格於1920年前後本著現象學的立場去反省當時的宗教哲學;同樣的,胡塞爾中晚期(20年代以後)的思想也具備著從倫理學到宗教的向度。本文對之做了比較對照,並將二者的立場向過去希臘與基督教的不同文化去溯源。此二文化可能產生的交集或衝擊亦反映在對胡塞爾與海德格哲學有某些影響的奧古斯丁思想裡。本文希望能對於海德格與胡塞爾的倫理與宗教思想做些背景的解釋。另外,本文將注意海德格所提出的一種形式指引的方法,它在面對「內在中的超越如何可能」的質疑中,扮演了一個正面解答的角色。這個方法在海德格的宗教現象學處理中固然舉足輕重,然而,在胡塞爾宗教論述中是否也呈現類似的方法,並得以適切地以處理屬於宗教的超越性?我們也見到在奧古斯丁亦有方法上的類似性來談論上帝。
Abstract We see Heidegger made reflection on his contemporary philosophies of religion in 1920s, which was under his own phenomenological position. We also can see Husserl in his middle and late period (after twenties) developed a religious orientation departing from his ethical thinking and under his phenomenological position too. A comparison is made in this article, and the both positions are traced back to the difference of Greek and Christian cultures. Possible interconnection or impact between the both cultures was reflected in Augustine's thought that has shed some influence upon Husserl and Heidegger's philosophy. We hope in this article to be able to explain the background of their ethical and religious thinking. Furthermore, we take notice of "formal indication" as a method to be posited by Heidegger. It plays an important role to response the question in positive light: "How is possible the transcendence in the immanence?" This method is certainly essential in Heidegger's treatment of the phenomenology of religion; however, is it a similar method in Husserl's discussion about religion, in order to properly treat the transcendence belonging to religion? We also see a similar method of Augustinian discourse of God.
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