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第 43  期

專題論文
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電力技術者的知識來源與實踐──以《臺電社報》為主的探討(1919-1944)
The Knowledge Resource and Practice of Electrical Engineering──A Basic Analysis on Tai Den Sha Ho (1919-1944)
作者 林蘭芳
Author Lan-fang Lin
關鍵詞 《臺電社報》電力技術者知識來源工學教育實踐
Keywords Taiwan Power company, Tai Den Sha Ho (The Tai Den Gazette), electrical engineer, knowledge resource, electrical or civil/mechanical engineering education, practice
摘要 電力建設是臺灣日治時期重要的現代化表徵,除了有日本殖民政府的資金挹注,還有電力技術一日千里所帶動的電力新建設。而負責推動電力建設的電力技術者,他們的專業訓練與知識來源為何?為何得以肩負起不斷更新的電力建設?為解決上述疑問,本文以臺灣電力株式會社內部刊行的《臺電社報》為分析論據,結果發現:
第一,刊行於1919年至1944年間的《臺電社報》,提供臺電電力技術者知識與經驗交流的平臺,不論是刊載他們在職場工作上的發現,或是出差歐美、日本之見聞與心得,都具有更新知識的特質,使得技術者的眼界跟得上時代腳步,縮短與電力新知中心的距離,增益己所不能。
第二,各級電力技術者的專業技術來自其本身各級工業學校的訓練,例如主要技師來源的東京帝國大學工學部,在學校的訓練兼重英文、專業科目、實地訓練,離開校園進入職場後,並強調「做中學」,在實務和所學之理論間不斷對話,而帶動電力技術的更新。其中,英文是接受新知的必備工具,是通向最新電力技術知識的必要橋樑,顯示出歐美等國供給技術新知所不可取代的先進位置。由此可知,作為邊陲臺灣之中心的日本,實是歐美的邊陲,而臺灣電力新知的來源實有多重中心的存在。
第三,從地理空間裡中心與邊陲的對應關係來看,權力的中心與邊陲,以及技術應用的中心與邊陲,是相對而非重疊的。臺電本社所在地的臺北是權力中樞,遠離權力中樞的各地區營業所係屬邊陲。不過有趣的是,由於日治時期臺灣的發電方式以水力發電技術為主軸,水力電源往往蘊藏於地處偏遠的山川水湄,因此愈是邊陲的地區,反而成為發揮電力專業技術的核心地區。
最後,電力技術從中心流動到邊陲,有從日本、歐美多元中心習得的技術,但也要配合臺灣的風土、氣候與社會文化等而調整。因此電力技術的落實,經過中心與邊陲的相互為用而落地生根,也可以重新再出發進行另一次技術輸出。
Abstract Constructing the material civilizations were the symbols of modernization in Taiwan during the Japanese ruling Era. Electricity power was one of the most important infrastructures. How did the establishment of electricity come about? The electrical engineer did play an important role in constructing the electric facilities, how did they learn the professional knowledge and how did they practice it? What kind of professional discipline they learned at schools? What kinds of languages were important for them to learn the professional knowledge and practice it?
This paper aims to solve these problems by analyzing the case of Taiwan Power Company. The periodical of this company, Tai Den Sha Ho (The Tai Den Gazette, 1919-1944), provided a communication platform for their engineers, especially for the mechanical, civil and electrical engineers. By means of it, they built a connection of network of the electricity knowledge. The resource of their professional knowledge was from multiple sources. Except from the publications, the experience based on the practice at work was as important as what they learned from books. To strengthen their expertise, the engineers went to Japan, the motherland of colony, and went to America, the advanced country, to learn the newest electrical knowledge.
This paper comes to the conclusion that English is the basic bridge for the Taiwan Power engineers to keep up with the advanced knowledge of electricity. From this aspect, America and Europe were pioneering regions of the knowledge resource of electricity, and Japan is the second center. But the engineers in the periphery, namely, Taiwan, were not only receivers from the center, they were also practitioners in the periphery of electrical knowledge. Moreover, Taiwan Power engineers brought their electrical knowledge to other regions during the wartime (1940s), e.g., the South-China and the south-east Asia. That is to say, Taiwan became a new center of electrical knowledge for some regions while it was the periphery of America, Europe and the Japanese Empire.
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