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第 39  期

General Article

The Evolutionary Change of the Idea of "Zhong"(loyalty) in the Mid-late Warring States Period
作者 佐藤將之
Author Masayuki Sato
關鍵詞 「忠」「忠信」《戰國策》《莊子》《韓非子》稷下
Keywords zhong (loyalty), zhongxin (loyalty and trusttworthiness), the Zhuangzi, the Hanfeizi, the Jixia masters
摘要 本文是筆者探討中國古代「忠」和「忠信」概念演變及其在中國古代政治思想中角色的第三篇論著,也是筆者建構先秦「忠」 觀念思想史的一部份研究成果。
本文闡述了《戰國策》、《莊子》、《韓非子》等文獻以及稷下學者對於「忠」和「忠信」觀念的價值之「商榷」或「批判」 ,以及其批判所引發「忠」概念內涵的變質(「忠」於道德→「忠」於自我利益)。進而得知,時至戰國末年,原先佔國早中期 儒、墨兩家所提倡的「忠」概念之價值功能已遭到「轉折」。筆者冀望能藉由此分析而構畫出戰國時期由「忠」概念演變輪廓 ─戰國時期由「忠」概念建構的政治思想之言說,歷經了多樣且複雜的演變過程,而其價值功能也隨之浮沉。
Abstract This article aims to elucidate some significant sapects in the sevelopment of the Warring ststes'political thought by means of analyzing the concept of "Zhong" (loyalty) and various criticisms against it, which have been proposed by thinkers, e.g.,Daoists,Jixia Masters, and the author(s) of the Hanfeizi,during the mid-late Warring States period. Originally, the concept of zhong has been regarded as one of those highest values among those political ideas in the mind of the early Warring States' Con-fucians and Mohists. In constrast, the mid-late Warring States thinkers have presumed that the idea of zhong was not imperative for statecrafts; it can even harm them. They also advanced their discussion to urge that a state cannot rely on a few prominent "loyal" statesmen such as Bi GAN, Shang Yang, Wu Qi, etc,but has to make efforts to obtain the power of the people who have been motivated not by personal loyalty toward their ruler,but profit and duty that were to be zhong has drastically changed. The Hanfeizi succeeded in this aspect in its concept of zhong, and considered that, whether minsters and officials become loyal to their lord or not would be completely dependent on how the lord allocate profits and duty to them. However the Hanfeizi, on the other hand, did not deny the value of those prominent loyal ministers such as Shang Yang and Wu Qi. Here there can been seen a inconsisitency and predicament in the Hanfeizi's political philosophy on how to maintain the adequate relationship between the ruler and monisters.
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