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第 42  期

General Article

A Study on French State-regulated Prostitution System in the Nineteenth Century
作者 王秋琪
Author Qiu-qi Wang
關鍵詞 賣淫公共衛生公娼公娼制度資產階級
Keywords Prostitution, public hygiene, licensed prostitutes, state-regulated prostitution system, the bourgeoisie
摘要 十九世紀初期,身為醫學重鎮的法國採取「管理主義」(le réglementarisme)處理娼妓問題,並建立出一套獨樹一幟的「法國式公娼制度」,成為歐洲各國的仿傚對象。此制度自執政府時期(le Consulat, 1799-1804)初僅行於巴黎市,七月王朝(la Monarchie de Juillet, 1830-1848)初期時,漸推及外省,並達到巔峰,後來慢慢步入沒落,最後於西元1946年4月13日「瑪特理查法」(la loi Marthe Richard)通過後正式劃下句點。
本文將以巴洪醫生(Alexandre Parent-Duchâtelet, 1790-1836)於西元1827年期間所進行的社會調查報告《從公共衛生、道德及行政方面檢視巴黎市賣淫情形》(De la prostitution dans la ville de Paris considérée sous le rapport de l’hygiéne publique, de la morale et de l’administration)作為主要參考文獻,輔以米爾醫生(Hippolyte Mireur, 1841-1914)及古約先生(Yves Guyot, 1843-1928)等人當時的研究成果,試分析十九世紀法國公娼制度的形成背景及其執行情形,進而檢討出釀成此制度失敗的原因,一方面除了有助於讀者對此公娼制度的進一步了解,另一方面亦可作為日後國內相關政策制定者之參考。
研究發現,資產階級(la bourgeoisie)是十九世紀法國公娼制度的幕後推手,從制度的形成背景到實行內容,無不反映資產階級在其中的影響力。然而,仔細檢討制度的失敗原因,不難發現除了人謀不臧的因素之外,資產階級的意識型態及價值觀亦扮演著舉足輕重的角色。
Abstract At the beginning of the nineteenth century, after earning a good reputation for its medicine development, French government decided to choose the stated-regulated approach to solve the problem of prostitution. This French state-regulated pattern set a good example, and it inspired some European countries. This system began in Paris during the period of the Consulate (1799-1804). Then, it spread to other provincial cities and attained the zenith at the beginning of July Monarchy (1830-1848). It fell into decay afterwards. Finally, it was abolished by "Marthe Richard's Law" on April 13, 1946.
This paper aims to scrutinize this French state-regulated prostitution system by mainly referring to Alexandre Parent-Duch𦷜telet's famous research conducted in 1827. It was under the title of Prostitution in the city of Paris regarding public hygiene, morality and administration. Then, the related studies of Hippolyte Mireur (1841-1914) and Yves Guyot (1843-1928) are also the reference sources for this paper.
What was the background of this French system? Why was it unable to endure? What were the main reasons of its failure? Did bourgeois ideology and values play a significant role in it? This paper will attempt to answer these questions above through an examination of historical facts.
/ 莊兵    Bing Zhuang
/ 吳振漢    Chen-han Wu
/ 陸敬忠    Jing-jong Luh
Matthew Calarco and Seven DeCaroli ed. Sovereignty & Life
/ David Barton    
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