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第 47  期

General Article

The Prototype and Evolution of Elegy in Han Dynasty ──from Cases of “Xielou” and “Haoli”
作者 劉德玲
Author De-ling Liu
關鍵詞 〈薤露〉〈蒿里〉挽歌喪歌擬樂府
Keywords “Xielou, ” “Haoli, ” elegy, dirge, imitating Yuefu Poetry
摘要 〈薤露〉與〈蒿里〉是漢樂府中的二首挽歌,以簡單的文字貼切比喻生命無常的感慨,自成一格的挽歌形式是文學發展史上的獨特現象,這二首樂府古辭在後代發展為樂府詩〈薤露行〉與〈蒿里行〉,後代擬作共六首,本文擬從這二首漢樂府古辭中的挽歌引出後代擬作的流變,以觀其不同時代背景下挽歌表現的詩歌主題,基本上這些擬作不論是詠史、敘事或抒情都是〈薤露〉、〈蒿里〉古辭詩歌原型死亡意識的再度闡發,有著濃厚的悲婉氛圍,同時也反映挽歌從喪葬儀式的實用性走向敘事詩、詠史詩的過程,由實用向抒情的轉化。本文並分析〈薤露〉與〈蒿里〉在詩歌原型上的不同文化意涵,〈薤露〉原與勞役之歌相關連,具有濃厚的地方歌謠色彩;〈蒿里〉則受到泰山信仰的影響,有主生主死的原型意涵。
Abstract “Xielou” and “Haoli” were two impressive elegies in Han Yuefu. The two Yuefu poems, featuring particular elegiac style and depicting the impermanence of life by uncomplicated words, have occupied a unique position in Chinese literary history. Later, the two elegies had developed into “Xielouxing” and “Haolixing” and were intentionally mimicked by following writers. This paper aims to compare the elegiac themes, throughout different times and from various backgrounds, in order to observe the elegy evolution developing from practical applications of funeral service to lyric epics. The study shows that authors of Wei-Jin dynasty had a subtle and careful examination of life and death. This paper also analyzes the differences between “Xielou” and “Haoli” in terms of the original form and cultural meaning. “Xielou” was related to the local labor songs and “Haoli” was impacted by the prototypical faith in the Mountain Tai which could master one’s life and death.
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