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第 31  期


Shasei and Diligence: Maruyama Ōkyo and Moral Education in Prewar and Wartime Japan
作者 曹嗣衡
Author Chi-Hang Cho
關鍵詞 圓山應舉寫生道德教育修身教育勅語
Keywords Maruyama Ōkyo, Shasei, Moral education, Shūshin, The Imperial Rescript on Education
摘要 圓山應舉(1733-1795)是日本江戶時代著名的寫生派畫家。寫生需要畫家親身觀察實物。於明治時期,尤其於1890年頒布加強傳統儒家道德價值的《教育勅語》後,寫生被視為代表著勤學、認真的品格,而作為寫生派宗師的圓山隨即被大量民間提倡傳統道德價值的書籍吸納,成為代表勤學的人物,以教導兒童、青年讀者勤學精神;圓山更在小學道德教育的修身科中登場,直到終戰,成為官方宣揚道德的工具。本文以文獻研究方法,從江戶到明治、大正、昭和時代中,考察圓山及其寫生故事如何在各種民間與官方的文獻內被描繪、改造、誤讀、詮釋,以及教師如何在小學內教授圓山,使圓山——這位江戶時代的畫家,如何在明治時期以降成為國家政治動員的一部分。
Abstract Maruyama Ōkyo (1733-1795) is a famous Shasei (Sketching) school painter of the Edo Era. Shasei requires the painter to observe the object depicted in person. During the Meiji period, especially after the promulgation of the Imperial Rescript on Education in 1890, which reinforced traditional Confucian moral values, Shasei was seen as a symbol of diligence and seriousness; Maruyama, as the patriarch of the Shasei school, was immediately included in many civilian books advocating traditional moral values, and became a representative model of diligence for children and young readers. Maruyama made his debut in the subject Shūshin (moral education) in primary schools, and was a tool for the official propagation of morality until the end of the Pacific War. Using a documentary approach, this paper examines how Maruyama and his stories of painting were depicted, reworked, interpreted and misinterpreted in various civilian and official documents from the Edo period through to the Meiji, Taisho and Showa periods. The paper also considers how teachers taught Maruyama in primary schools, enlisting a painter of the Edo period in the political mobilization of the state from the Meiji period onwards.
/ 賴毓芝    Yu-chih Lai
/ 李淑卿    Shwu-Ching Lee
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