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第 31  期


The Practice of “Painting Academy” at the Kangxi Court and the Foundation of the Qing Court Style in the High Qing Period: A Case Study of Jiang Tingxi and his Team
作者 賴毓芝
Author Yu-chih Lai
關鍵詞 康熙朝畫院蔣廷錫中西折衷風格院體
Keywords “Painting Academy” of the Kangxi reign, Jiang Tingxi, Western-Chinese Eclectic Style, Court style
摘要 清宮是否有可資辨認並代表皇家風格的「院體」存在?大部分學者往往不加分析地在文中使用「院體」或「畫院風格」等名詞,然而究竟所謂「院體」與「畫院風格」是什麼?其如何形成?什麼時候成立?這些基本問題卻少有較為全面的檢視與回應。本文以康熙皇帝的重要幕僚——蔣廷錫與其作品為中心,意圖呈現通常被視為盛清院體代表的「中西合璧」折衷風格在康熙朝已經奠立,且論證其出現可能與康熙皇帝對於「畫」之期待與預設相關。文中跳脫以往學界將其工筆設色之「臣」字款作品視為代筆之作,糾結於孰真孰偽的鑑賞論取徑,而是視其名下不同風格的作品為團隊合作的結果,並將這些作品的生產與蔣廷錫的宦途經歷並置,分析其門下團隊成員的組合,重建在宮廷畫院制度尚未完備之際,宮廷如何靈活地利用近臣承攬皇家製作,透過皇帝與近臣的密切互動形成皇家風格。此文希望透過重建蔣廷錫團隊與宮廷作坊的關係,分析康熙朝宮廷繪畫經歷的發展與變化,即使不一定有「院體」的意識與成熟的「畫院」組織,其發展卻奠定了盛清院體成立之基調配方。
Abstract Was there a recognizable court style that represented the royal façade in the Qing court? Most scholars of the Qing court use the terms “Court Style (yuan ti)”or “Academic style (huayuan fengge)” without specifying what exactly they refer to, or when and how this standard style, if it ever existed, formed. These basic questions have never been comprehensively answered. This paper intends to focus on the works and life of Jiang Tingxi, one of the high officials and consultants closest to Emperor Kangxi, and argues that the eclectic style combining Chinese and European techniques taken as representative of the high Qing court style was actually founded during the reign of Kangxi, and much influenced by Emperor Kangxi’s expectations regarding the functions of “paintings” or “images.” This paper goes beyond connoisseurship studies and considers works ascribed to Jiang, yet done by different hands, as products the team working in Jiang’s workshop. By juxtaposing Jiang’s career with these works done in different styles, this paper reconstructs the identities of the Jiang’s team members. The paper also finds that under Kangxi, the operation and practices of the royal “painting academy” depended heavily on the contributions of the high officials’ personal staff. This royal court style was established through close interactions between the emperor and his favored high officials, and carried out not necessarily by official court painters, but by the high officials’ personal team. Despite of the fact that the royal court style was probably not consciously asserted in the Kangxi reign, as was the case during Qianlong’s reign, by focusing on Jiang Tingxi and his team, this paper hopes to shed light on its development in the nascent period and explore how this laid the foundations for the future standard court style of the royal façade in the high Qing period.
/ 李淑卿    Shwu-Ching Lee
/ 曹嗣衡    Chi-Hang Cho
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