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第 29  期

Special Issue

Zhu Xi's Research on Mencius' Status as a Sage
作者 姜龍翔
Author Chiang, Lung-hsiang
關鍵詞 朱熹孟子升格聖賢形象顏回亞聖
摘要 此文主旨在探討朱熹對孟子聖賢形象之論述定位,並論及由漢至宋對亞聖稱謂之意涵。經由朱熹文集、語類及歷代文獻歸納分析,發現稱孟子為亞聖者,乃指其才能可上比孔子,並非視之為儒家第二號聖人。且唐宋之際主要以顏回為亞聖,孟子仍屈居顏回之下。朱熹雖建立孟子在儒學上的繼承地位,但他卻透過比較方式,指出孟子不及孔、顏之處。因此,朱熹仍將孟子視為居於孔子及顏回之後的大賢地位。然朱熹針對疑孟思想指孟子不敬君、不尊周的作法,則從時勢問題為之解釋辯護,企圖以權宜之道來化解孟子爭議,對孟子形象之提升有所裨益。不過,朱熹亦未迴避指出孟子言行缺失,透過這些爭議的探討,完備修養功夫體系。經由此文研究成果,將改變一般大眾對亞聖名號的誤解,對於孟子在唐宋以前聖賢定位的改變過程及其爭議形象問題的發展,亦將有更深入的認識。
Abstract The main purpose of this thesis is to explore Zhu Xi’s exposition on the image of Mencius saint, and to analyze the connotation of the ancient title of “sub-sage”. This article analyzes Zhu Xi’s collections, quotations, and related documents, and finds that the ancients called Mencius the sub-sage, which meant that his talent was comparable to Confucius, not that he was the second sage. Since the Tang Dynasty, “sub-sage” mainly refers to Yanhui, and Mencius’s status is not as good as Yanhui. Although Zhu Xi had a great Confucian status as a respect for Mencius, he pointed out that Mencius was inferior to Confucius and Yan Hui through comparison. Zhu Xi explained Mencius’s disrespect of the emperor and Zhou Dynasty from the perspective of current situation. He tried to resolve the dispute of Mencius and helped to enhance the image of Mencius. However, Zhu Xi also faced the lack of Mencius’s remarks and established a more complete cultivation system through discussion. Through the research results of this article, everyone’s misunderstanding of “sub-sage” will be changed. And can have a deeper understanding of the image of Mencius and the development of controversial issues.
/ 張文朝    Chang, Wen-chao
/ 楊祖漢    Yang, Cho-hon
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