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第 45  期

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錢德明的《聖樂經譜》:本地化策略下的明清天主教聖樂
Joseph-Marie Amiot’s Shengyue Jingpu: the Transformation of Catholic Sacred Music under Inculturation Policy in Ming and Qing Dynasties
作者 洪力行
Author Li-xing Hong
關鍵詞 錢德明聖樂經譜宗教與音樂明清天主教聖樂本地化
Keywords Joseph-Marie Amiot, Shengyue jingpu, religion and music, Catholic sacred music in Ming and Qing dynasties, inculturation
摘要 十七、十八世紀期間,以耶穌會為首的天主教傳教士在中國展開了積極的福傳活動,在他們融入中國文化的嘗試與適應策略之下,促成了中國與西方在許多面向上的雙向文化交流。就音樂方面而言,具有音樂素養的來華傳教士原本就不在少數,自利瑪竇(Matteo Ricci, 1552-1610)以來,這些傳教士在中國展開了近兩百年的音樂活動,其中更以法國耶穌會士錢德明神父(Joseph-Marie Amiot, 1718-1793)最有系統地耕耘音樂的領域。錢德明神父致力於從理論與實務上來理解中國音樂,並採集整理樂譜,寄往歐洲,曾造成不小的影響。在他所整理的中國音樂樂譜手稿中,包括了一套十三首的聖樂作品,中文名稱為《聖樂經譜》(Musique Sacrée, 1779),法文副標題則為「譜成中國音樂的重要禱文曲集」(Recueil des principales prières mises en musique chinoise)。本研究以錢德明神父所採集的《聖樂經譜》手稿為基礎加以分析,並根據近期相關研究與錄音資料所提供的線索,來解析這些曲子的特色與意涵,以及其與天主教禮儀之關係,進而探究這部聖樂作品背後所反映出的一種本地化(inculturation)策略。
Abstract During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Catholic church, pioneered by the Society of Jesus, commenced active evangelization in China. When spreading seeds of the faith, the Jesuits incorporated the strategy of inculturation by instilling elements of Chinese culture into the Catholic tradition, which proves to have significant influence in cultural exchanges between the East and West. The same impact is observed in the domain of music. After the arrival of Matteo Ricci, SJ (1552-1610) in China, there is no lack of missionaries with both talent and training in music to work in China. These priests opened a new page of music activities for a span of nearly two hundred years; and the French Jesuit Fr. Joseph-Marie Amiot (1718-1793) is the most prominent among them. Fr. Amiot devoted himself to understanding the tradition of Chinese music in both its theories and practices, and thus was able to compile the music scores, then send them back to Europe. These manuscripts exert considerable influence. Among his Chinese compositions for liturgical music is Shengyue jingpu (Musique Sacrée, 1779), with the French subtitle “Recueil des principales prières mises en musique chinoise.” Grounded upon the work of recent studies, this paper examines the manuscript of the afore-mentioned work in order to analyze its musical features and its relation to the Catholic liturgy, and interpret its meanings. More importantly, the author discusses the Catholic strategy of inculturation in the late Ming dynasty reflected in the work.
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