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第 45  期

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《紅樓》解碼──小說敘事的隱喻象徵
Decipherment of Hong Lou──The Metaphorical Symbol of Narrative Novel
作者 林素玟
Author Su-wen Lin
關鍵詞 敘事治療榮格心理學紅樓夢隱喻象徵
Keywords narrative therapy, Jung’s psychology, Hong lou meng, metaphor, symbol
摘要 本文從「創傷療癒」的角度,運用榮格心理分析學派的理論,探討《紅樓夢》小說敘事的隱喻象徵。由這些隱喻象徵,可透顯小說作者意識與潛意識之底蘊。綜觀《紅樓夢》中主要的隱喻象徵展現在四個面向:
一為神話原型:包括女媧、警幻仙姑(秦可卿)、一僧一道等三個神話人物的原型象徵,以及三種原型所呈現的小說作者之深層心理。
二為夢境指迷:《紅樓夢》的各個夢境中,有一內在有機結構,浮現出小說作者潛意識對生命之召喚、歷劫與回歸的渴盼。
三為文化符號:小說作者運用許多中國文化符號,包括通靈寶玉、風月寶鑑、太虛幻境(大觀園)以及「紅」的意象,分別象徵本具自性、內在心識、圓滿自性,以及潔淨靈性。
四為諧音雙關:小說作者大量運用諧音雙關,展現諸法空相、家道盛衰、人世消長,以及夢幻情緣等人生觀及宇宙觀,體現其內在一貫的佛法思想。
Abstract This paper applies the theories of Carl G. Jung’s psychology to delve into the metaphoric symbols of narrative in novel Hong lou meng by Cao Xueqin from the perspective of Jung’s analytical psychology. These metaphoric symbols will embody the author’s conscious and subconscious connotation. The main metaphoric symbols in Hong lou meng are displayed in four dimensions:
Firstly, myth prototype: It includes the prototypic symbols of three mythological figures, Nüwa, Immortal Woman of Fairy Disenchantment (Qin Keqing) and a Buddhist monk and a Taoist priest, as well as the author’s deep psyche presented by three prototypes.
Secondly, guide of dream: There exists one inner organic structure in each dream in Hong lou meng, emerging with the author’s subconscious calling, calamity and eagerness for return emerged.
Thirdly, cultural signs: In Hong lou meng, the author applied many signs of Chinese culture including Precious Jade of Tongling (Spiritual Understanding), Precious Mirror of Romance, land of illusion (Daguan Garden) and the image of “Red” that symbolizes innate self-being, inner mind, satisfactory self-being and spirit of chastity respectively.
Fourthly, homonym with a double meaning: Homonyms with a double meaning were used in Hong lou meng to present the outlooks in life value and cosmos, all dharmas marked with emptiness, rise and fall of the family, vicissitudes of life and affections in the dream, which embody the Buddhist thought of inner coherence.
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