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第 45  期

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風俗、地方與帝國:《太平歡樂圖》的製作及其對「熙皞之象」的呈現
Customs, Provinces, and the Empire: The Making of Taiping huanle tu (The Album of Happiness in a Peaceful Age) and Its Representation of “Peaceful Regime”
作者 馬雅貞
Author Ya-chen Ma
關鍵詞 太平歡樂圖南巡風俗畫熙皞之象金德輿
Keywords Taiping huanle tu (The Album of Happiness in a Peaceful Age), nanxun (the imperial southern inspection tours), fengsu hua (genre paintings), xihao zhi xiang (manifestations of a peaceful regime), Jin Deyu
摘要 乾隆第五次南巡,浙江人金德輿進獻了百幅《太平歡樂圖》。這套冊頁以人物表現來描繪浙江地區的物產風俗,以呈現乾隆治下的「熙皞之象」。歷史學家推崇其中對市井生活的描寫;藝術史學者則指出其自城市風俗圖萃取百業所傳達的政治意涵。然而,為什麼百業的描畫可以成為盛世的象徵?和其他亦描寫各色行業,而現今泛以「風俗畫」概括的明清作品有何異同?究竟金德輿所建構的「熙皞之象」為何?反映的是什麼樣的立場?其進獻策略的成敗與否彰顯什麼樣的意義?透過分析其南巡進呈的製作脈絡,以及和其他相關圖繪的比較,本文論述《太平歡樂圖》曲折的製作、進獻收受與所建構的「熙皞之象」,和金德輿個人、其交游圈、浙江地方、乃至帝國中心和邊陲都不無關係。進而從此個案的比較和分析,探討泛稱在所謂明清「風俗畫」之內圖繪的差別與意義。
Abstract During Qianlong’s fifth imperial southern inspection tour, a Zhejiang resident named Jin Deyu presented the emperor with an one-hundred-leaf album titled Taiping huanle tu (The Album of Happiness in a Peaceful Age). The paintings featured figures holding various occupations as a way of showing the native products and customs of the Zhejiang region, thus representing the Qianlong reign as one of great peace. Historians have praised its detailed depiction of everyday life, while art historians have pointed out that the representations of the figures’ occupations, based on cityscapes and fengsu hua (genre paintings), held political implications. But how could various occupations symbolize a peaceful regime? How did the album differ from the so-called fengsu hua of the time which also featured figures engaging in different livelihoods? Precisely what kind of “peaceful regime” was constructed by Jin Deyu? Did he as a result of commissioning the album succeed in advancing his official career? By contextualizing Jin’s presentation of the album to the emperor and comparing the album to other related paintings, this article argues that the making and reception of Taiping huanle tu as well as its construction of “a peaceful regime” drew from Jin’s personal experience, his circle, the Zhejiang region as well as the inter-relationship between the empire, provinces and the frontiers. This case study further explores the differences among the so-called fengsu hua of late imperial China and their meanings.
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