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第 70  期

專題論文
Special Issue

  (77)
王陽明哲學的內在化
The Immanence of Wang YangMing’s Philosophy
作者 林維杰
Author Wei-Chieh Lin
關鍵詞 王陽明內在性外在性超越性當代新儒家
Keywords Wang YangMing(王陽明), immanence/internality, transcendence, contemporary Neo-Confucianism
摘要 我在這篇文章中分析王陽明哲學中可能蘊含的兩組概念,分
別是「內在─超越」與「外在─超越」,並將指出王陽明把內在性與外在性都收攝到內在性的良知主體。儒家哲學關於內在超越的討論首見於當代新儒家,他們對這組觀念的不同見解乃源於他們對儒學與宗教關係的處理。徐復觀堅持自先秦之後,儒家即轉為內在人文主義而拒絕宗教神祇,因而也拒絕了超越性。唐君毅與牟宗三則主張人文宗教在倫理生活的重要性,也嘗試由內在超越的立場來理解儒學中的宗教性。總而言之,徐復觀是聚焦於人的內在性,而唐、牟則由內在超越來深化儒學。我認為王陽明的良知學即是把具有宗教向度(天理)的超越性與倫理生活的外在性,都由內在性的道德主體來主宰。對王陽明哲學而言,內在性的重點在於良知證明它先行於宗教情境與倫理情境。
Abstract I will in this article to analyze two sets of concepts in Wang YangMing(王陽明)’s philosophy, namely “immanence-transcendence” and “internality-externality.” The former set has been discussed by three representative figures of
contemporary Neo-Confucianism: Tang JunYi(唐君毅), Mou ZongSan(牟宗三) and Xu FuGuan (徐復觀). They share different views on the relationship between Confucianism and religion. Xu insists that ever since the pre-Qin period, Confucianism’s emphasis is always on immanent humanism and refutes religious deity and transcendence. Tang and Mou, on the contrary, reiterate the importance of “religious humanism” in ethical life; and at the same time they also try to reinterpret the affinity of Confucianism and religion from the view of immanent transcendence. Overall speaking, Xu’s attempt is to focus on one’s “immanence,” while Tang and Mou deepen Confucianism by suggesting the concept of “immanent transcendence.” For Wang, the point of
“immanence” is to keep the conscience(良知,liangzhi)further proving itself rather than to find meanings of religious and ethical situations.
導言:終極關懷與宗教倫理
/ 陸敬忠    Jing-Jong Luh
1
體系性宗教(際)詮釋學之宗教倫理及 價值規範向度基本問題初探
/ 陸敬忠    Jing-Jong Luh
11
試析嵇康理想人格的宗教向度
/ 陳佩君    Pei-Chun, Chen
49
「念死」到「慈悲」的轉化:自我覺知 與饒益他者的倫理轉化與超越性
/ 嚴瑋泓    Wei-Hung Yen
95
宗教場域內之詮釋學的實踐 ──Brian Gregor 之呂格爾之宗教詮釋學
/ 黃筱慧    Cristal Huang
115
由休謨之「神蹟觀」反思基督教的 終極關懷倫理觀
/ 楊雨青    Yu-Ching Yang
137
以技藝為中介來看倫理與宗教的連結: 從亞里斯多德出發反思中國哲學
/ 汪文聖    Wen-Sheng Wang
163
新冠病毒疫情的倫理反思與公共衛生倫理學的建構
/ 李瑞全    Shui-Chuen Lee
197
從儒家視角檢視突發疫情期間以年齡作為醫療資源配置的道德基礎與疑慮
/ 周琬琳    Wan-ling Chou
243
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