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在英雄殞落之後的英雄:Gericault 的《梅杜莎之筏》
Heroes after the Death of the Hero: Gericault's Raft of the Medusa
作者 Gregor Wedekind
Author Gregor Wedekind
關鍵詞 Theodore Gericault梅杜莎之筏英雄 Theodore Gericault, Raft of the Medusa, hero
摘要 在1819年,沙龍展出由Gericault所畫的《梅杜莎之筏》,呈現了對歷史繪畫的抨擊,而歷史畫類主要是將英雄形象概念化的繪畫類別。Gericault 的繪畫違反了所有歷史繪畫不可或缺的美學範疇,這類的範疇確立了廣泛且普世隱含的寓意。然而在同時,巨幅的型式以及Gericault對於人體獨具風格的處理,無疑地使這幅畫意圖達到歷史繪畫的高尚情操。縱使Gericault筆下的新英雄激起了觀賞者的同情,他這些新英雄絕非是供人認同的嶄新形象。畫中對立的美學結構並不允許以如此單一明確的解讀。他英雄化了一種人類企圖透過藝術去激發的特定情感,而此種情感並非以傳統的英雄再現便可以達成的。這已經不再是以往那些著名的英雄人物,甚至也不是單一的無名英雄,取而代之的是英雄式人體的聚合,企圖展現英雄式苦難,並使人信服。實際上,這樣的效果是由圖畫整體所達成的。有鑑於此,圖畫本身的美學價值便躍然眼前。從一開始,這幅畫的評論便來回於超人的尺寸與力量的描繪,以及創作本身必備的超人尺寸與精力,也就是擺盪於主題與創作過程之間。Gericault在此巨幅作品當中呈現的宏偉姿態,乃試圖超越歷史繪畫的傳統。他所選擇的篇幅和構圖,將富有爭議性的主題擴大為傑出的藝術,這些都傳遞了別出心裁的訴求,直接傳達了他對於功成名就的渴望。作品的創作者,也就畫家本人,儼然顯現於畫作之後,成了真正的英雄。
(翻譯:李鎧伊)
Abstract Gericault's Raft of the Medusa, exhibited in the Salon of 1819, represents an attack on the picture genre in which the image of the hero is primarily conceptualized: the history painting. Gericault's painting offends all aesthetic categories that indispensably belong to history painting, categories that guarantee it its generalizing and universalizing connotations. Yet at the same time, the tremendous format and Gericault's stylistic treatment of the bodies depicted leave no doubt that this is a painting that would like to attain the dignity of history painting. Even if Gericault's new heroes arouse the sympathy of the viewer, they are in no way any use as new figures of identification. The antagonistically aesthetic structure of the picture does not allow for such an unequivocal reading. Gericault's heroicizing of that which is human intends to trigger certain emotions by way of art, emotions that would not have been attainable with the representation of a conventional hero. It is no longer the hero known by name, no longer even the single anonymous hero, but instead a conglomerate of heroic bodies which are meant to demonstrate heroic suffering and make it plausible. In fact, it is the picture as a whole that achieves this effect. For this reason, however, the aesthetic merit of the painting itself comes into view. From the start, the reception of the painting switched between the statement of superhuman size and energy as a depiction and the superhuman size and energy that were necessary to create this depiction. The magnificent gesture that Gericault makes with his enormous painting was intended to surpass the tradition of history painting. The chosen format, the composition, and the inflation of the scandalizing subject to great art refer directly to the artist and his absolute desire for fame and greatness. The creator of the picture, the artist himself, becomes visible behind the depiction as the actual hero.
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