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第 23  期


From Avengers to Desperate Wives: Women
作者 卓庭伍
Author Ting-Wu Cho
關鍵詞 明星研究社會寫實片女性復仇片新女性主義文化霸權
摘要 本論文從冷戰後期開始鬆動的東亞地緣政治、台灣鄉土文學發展和女性運動的歷史與社會脈絡切入,分析陸小芬、楊惠姍二位社會寫實女星於七〇年代末至八〇年代中期的明星形象轉變。在國際情勢遽變、政經政策轉向的七〇年代末期,台灣出現了社會寫實電影風潮,並快速演變為低成本、短線獲利、遊走在電檢制度與道德邊緣的剝削片,寫下台灣電影史上「最黑暗的一頁」。裸露的女體、血腥暴力的畫面、社會邊緣的主題帶來視覺震撼與快感,同時也是資本主義對國家審查的挑逗、對抗與合謀。社會寫實片中最受歡迎的「女性復仇」類型也捧紅了「二陸一楊」等穿著清涼薄衫、揮舞著刀械的女星,在銀幕上展現與瓊瑤明星孑然不同的大膽、墮落女性形象。社會寫實片沒落之後,許多女星消失在銀光幕前,而藉著《上海社會檔案》(1981)、《女性的復仇》(1981) 等女性復仇片走紅東南亞的陸小芬、楊惠姍也開始轉型挑戰現代與鄉土文學改編作品,改變了體型與演出方式並得到國際影展與主流媒體的認可;她們逐漸隆起的小腹、母性的身體承載了歷史傷痕,書寫了台灣政治、經濟與社會轉型的國族寓言,然而豐腴的胸脯與雪白長腿卻已烙下了「女性復仇」的印記。本文分析陸、楊二人的銀幕形象轉變以及聚焦於二人身體型態與展演的文化媒體論述,從乘載慾望的女人轉化為禁慾的母親,她們的形象周旋於女性自主與保守意識之間,反覆勾起電影與大眾文化對女體的迷戀與焦慮,同時反映台灣女權運動發展的困境,體現互相矛盾的現實想像、意識型態不斷對話與詰抗的文化歷史過程。
Abstract Taiwanese cinema in the 1980s saw the rise and fall of the “Taiwan Pulp” films—a group of hybrid exploitation films capitalizing on themes related to crime and sex. This article contextualizes the transformation of the star images of the Taiwan Pulp film actresses from late 1970s to mid-1980s within the shifting geopolitics of the late Cold War, the rise of the nativist literature and a modern national narrative, and the obstacle-ridden journey of women's movements in Taiwan. My research focuses on the career trajectories of Lu Hsiao-Fen (陸小芬) and Yang Hui-Shan (楊惠姍)——two of the most prolific actresses that rose to stardom in the Taiwan Pulp mania portraying seductive and deadly lady avengers on screen. Later, Lu and Yang starred in critically acclaimed literary adaptations and won significant film awards. Even then, their onscreen images remained problematic and controversial. In films, news, and gossip, their voluptuous bodies were the battlefield of the capitalist economy, political anxiety, feminist awareness, and nationalist ideology. Analyzing their changing onscreen representations and the conflicting media discourses centered around their bodies, I argue that their shifting star images should be understood as a process of struggle and negotiation between the grim social and political reality and the booming nativist and feminist activism in the 1980s. Using the theory of cultural hegemony influenced by Antonio Gramsci, the study opens up political possibilities to view the mass cultural fictions of femininity not as either an accomplice of the dominant patriarchal ideology or a resistance to it but as a dynamic historical process of change and negotiation.
/ 梁碧茹    Pi-Ju Liang
新女性的復仇: 社會寫實電影中的色情、越界與批判
/ 江美萱    Mei-Hsuan Chiang
/ 沈曉茵    Shiao-Ying Shen
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