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第 46  期

一般論文
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沈自晉《南詞新譜》集曲增訂論析──「備於今」的做法與價值
On Shen Zijin’s Nanci xinpu and the Value of His Principle of Up-to-date and Complete Augmentation
作者 黃思超
Author Si-chao Huang
關鍵詞 沈自晉《南詞新譜》沈璟《增定南九宮曲譜》集曲考訂
Keywords Shen Zijin, Nanci xinpu, Shen Jing, Zengding Nanjiugong qupu, jiqu, kaoding
摘要 明清之際,曲譜的編纂有不同的走向,其一是沈自晉以「備於今」的觀點編纂的《南詞新譜》,以時調新曲增補沈璟《增定南九宮曲譜》,保留大量當時未刊刻的散曲及傳奇作品;其二則是對《南詞新譜》影響甚鉅的馮夢龍《墨憨齋詞譜》以及徐于室、鈕少雅的《南曲九宮正始》,以「遵古」的觀念處理元代至明初作品,以之為曲譜編纂的材料,並訂正時人創作及曲譜的錯誤。《南詞新譜》以「備於今」的觀點,收錄大量時曲新調,除了曲譜本身建立曲律規範的目的外,還具有蒐羅新創曲牌、反映明末清初曲壇現況的作用。
即使後人對沈自晉《南詞新譜》多有批評,並以之與《九宮正始》比較,認為《南詞新譜》之「略古」使其多有錯錄。本文以為此說實需進一步辯證,曲譜的收錄畢竟有其觀點差異,客觀來看,即使集曲的考訂涉及曲牌體式演變得掌握,使《南詞新譜》有部分無可考或考訂錯誤的現象,然而觀點的差異並無關是非對錯,與時代相近的《九宮正始》強調「精選」、「詳古」相較,沈自晉的收錄方式顯得獨樹一幟,畢竟這樣的做法,已不只具有曲譜「建立規範」目的,而是具有彙集當代名作的「曲選」功能,時至當代,這種作法也使得《南詞新 譜》具有極高的文獻價值。
本文詳考《南詞新譜》的集曲收錄,探討《南詞新譜》新增集曲的收錄概況,並比較此譜對《增定南九宮曲譜》的增補及修訂,從沈自晉對既有曲牌重新考訂、變體增刪與補充說明,試圖從實際的例證,探討《南詞新譜》中曲牌收錄的具體情況,以及其中所反映曲律的演變。
Abstract In the interim of Ming and Qing Dynasties, there are different trends in the edition of qupu. In his work Nanci xinpu, Shen Zijin tried to make a collection with a point of view of being complete up-to-date. First, he had preserved a large body of unpublished works of qupu and legendary stories. Second, his was deeply influenced by Feng Menglong’s Mohan zhaicipu and Xu Yushi, Niu Shaoya’s Nanqu jiugong zhengshi, which followed the idea of following the tradition in editing the works from Yuan to the befinning of Ming Dynasty. Shen had accumulated a large body of works and besides building up its own rules, he had done the job of collecting new and creative play writs of the time to show the situation and performance of qupu from late Ming to early Qing Dynasties.
Shen was accused of being against the tradition and thus enlisted a number of errors. This paper gives a defense for Shen by giving an analysis of some of his reasons for or for not enlisting some play writs in order to show that Nanci xinpu in comparison with Zengding Nanjiugong qupu had established a norm for selection and his selection had the role of documenting those good pieces of his time.
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