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第 53  期

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熊十力疏釋《禮記‧儒行》意義探析
The Analysis of Xiong Shi-li’s Expatiation for “Confucian Scholar Practice” (儒行)
作者 孫致文
Author Chih-wen Sun
關鍵詞 熊十力儒行讀經示要
Keywords Xiong Shi-li, “Confucian Scholar Practice” (Ru-xing), Essentials for Reading the Classics (Dujing Shiyao)
摘要 熊十力《讀經示要》一書中,特別疏解了《禮記》〈大學〉、〈儒行〉二篇,認為是學子們「貫穿群經」的起點。然而,在現有研究成果中,熊十力〈儒行〉疏釋的觀點與價值,似未受重視。熊十力疏釋〈儒行〉全文,不但是熊氏「讀經」、「解經」最具體的示範,更可能是熊氏對儒者如何體現「仁道」的揭示。本文比對熊氏疏釋與前人舊注,指出熊氏對「儒者」基本性格的認識。再者,本文也檢討了熊氏詮解經典的得失,試圖探索熊氏疏釋〈儒行〉的學術史意義。透過〈儒行〉的逐句疏釋,熊十力揭露了「真儒者」的面目,扭轉柔弱、鄉愿、自利的偏差性格,強調了儒者勇健、進取且不受制於上位者的自信氣象。除此之外,熊氏不但重新釐定〈儒行〉的學術史地位,更透過指陳漢唐注經者、宋明理學者治經的偏失,在疏解的過程中體現讀經、解經的途徑。
Abstract In the book Essentials for Reading the Classics (讀經示要, Dujing Shiyao), Xion Shi-li expatiated “Great Learning” (大學, Da-xue) and “Confucian Scholar Practice” (儒行, Ru-xing) from The Book of Rites (禮記, Li-Ji). He regarded reading these materials as the beginning of understanding Confucian classics thoroughly. However, his viewpoint and the value accompanied with the expatiation of “Confucian Scholar Practice” seem to be underestimated by contemporary scholars. His expatiation is not merely an exemplification of how to read and to explain classics, but more importantly, it is a revelation of a Confucianist knowledge of how to embody the principal of Ren (仁). One of the purposes for this article is to compare the predecessor’s expatiation with Xion’s by which Xion’s understanding toward a Confucianist’s main character will be made clear.
By investigating his work’s merits and faults, what his expatiation means in intellectual history will be explored. The facts about hypocritical Confucianists will also be exposed in Xion’s expatiation. He tried to reverse the hypocrites’ crooked characters, such as cowardice, insincerity and selfishness. Meanwhile, he pointed out what a confidant authentic Confucianist ought to be: brave, forge with effort, and won’t subjected to the outrank when they see the right course. Additionally, the status of “Confucian Scholar Practice” on Chinese academic history is redefined by Xion, and the mistakes made by those scholars in Han, Tang Dynasty, as well as by Neo Confucianism, were also pointed out by him. Through his expatiation, he represented the access to read and explain Confucian classics.
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