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第 53  期

一般論文
General Article

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「上以禮神明」:《管子‧君臣》與《荀子》之禮治思想
Li (Ritual and Social Norm) Invests a Ruler with Miraculous Virtue and Intelligence to Govern: A Comparative Study of Li between the Guanzi and the Xunzi
作者 佐藤將之
Author Masayuki Sato
關鍵詞 管子荀子君臣上君臣下
Keywords Guanzi, Xunzi, “Lord and Minsters” Chapter, Li and Yi (rituals, social norms and morality)
摘要 本文的目的在於,從戰國諸概念、諸思想的「交流」和其「綜合」的角色之觀點,來探討《管子》的禮治思想,及其對《荀子》「禮論」的可能影響。本文先將整本《管子》對「禮」的論述歸納出六個思想特色,然後分析《管子》中密集論述「禮」論的〈君臣上〉和〈君臣下〉,討論其政治思想以及「禮」概念的角色,並且探討其與《荀子》禮論的思想關係。
本文觀察到《管子》的禮治思想在三方面的展開。第一個方向是「禮」概念的抽象化。在此「禮」概念幾乎被視為「治」或甚至「道」的代名詞。第二個方向是與此相反的具體化方向。由於《管子》引進「禮」概念,讓「心治」功夫轉換成可以實際實踐的方法。第三個方向為以「體」字為切入點,在身體和「國體」的類比中,展現「禮」對國家統合的關鍵特色。換言之,國家從實行「禮」中得到其生命。如此,「禮」成為人間最高且最貼切的準則。如此,對《管子》而言,「禮」的功效比擬於「神明」。由是觀之,可以合理推測說,荀子應該是從《管子》的禮治思想學了「禮」對國家運作上的關鍵功能。
Abstract One of salient characteristics of Xunzi’s socio-political theory can be observed in its comprehensiveness. This article aims to elucidate such an aspect of Xunzi’s thought by means of analyzing a possible influential relationship between the Guanzi’s concept of li (i.e., ritual and social norm) and that in the Xunzi. This article analyzes a unique role of the concept of li in the argument of the “Lord and Minsters I” and “Lord and Minsters II” chapters. On this basis, this article attempts to demonstrate that the following three points: (1) In the Guanzi, the concept of li has become a certain level of abstract idea which can be almost equivalent to the idea of the Way or the Principle. (2) In the discussion about the mind/heart practice to govern a country, the author regards li as a practicable and one of the best methods for a ruler to attain ideal psychological state. (3) By means of adopting a state-body metaphor, the author of the “Lord and Minsters I” and “Lord and Minsters II” chapters argues that the proper implementation of li invests a country with its “life.” In this aspect, the function of li is conceived of as “miraculous” as we see in the providential work of the Heaven and Earth. It is this aspect that Xunzi has learnt from the Guanzi when he has articulated his theory of li, which is indispensable for the peace and order, namely the life, of a country.
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