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第 6  期

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1933-34年芝加哥世界博覽會中華民國和日本藝品之展示
Chinese and Japanese Art Exhibited in the 1933-34 Chicago World's Fair
作者 周芳美
Author Fang-mei Chou
關鍵詞 博覽會中日關係藏傳佛教藝術
Keywords International Exposition, World's Fair, Sino-Japanese, Tibetan Buddhist Art
摘要 正值美國經濟谷底,芝加哥仍於1933年5月27日到11月1日和1934年5月26日到10月31日舉行世界博覽會,主題是「一個世紀的進步」。透過展場中不同的主題館和遊樂園強調過去一百年來科學的進步,使得人們可以憧憬未來的生活,不僅提振了芝加哥經濟活動,也慰藉人們無助的心靈。此次展覽由芝加哥藝術館負責策畫和展出官方的各國藝術品展覽,中國和日本的藝術品雖未正式受邀參展,但在博覽會舉行的期間芝加哥藝術館在兩個展間展出由Clarence Buckingham收藏的日本版畫。在博覽會會場上的一個主題館是瑞典探險家 Sven Hedin 在中國熱河省發現的普陀宗乘之廟中的萬法歸一殿,由芝加哥企業家Vincent Bendix出資複製運到會場重建,內部陳設蒐集來的藏傳佛教文物。此外,中日已因為偽滿洲國一事交惡,而日本更在此次博覽會舉行前出兵侵略熱河省而受到國際指責,故兩者在官方館的展示皆不如過去的盛大。中國官方的藝品以一個翡翠雕成的寶塔和漆像最受到注意報導。Parish-Watson & Co. 於1934年6月在上海街展示了為乾隆帝祝壽而鑄的18件金製文玩,紋飾內容亦與漢藏文化相關,大會還特別為這批文玩的入駐舉行活動,以招攬注意。日本則是以貝殼和珍珠黏貼成的美國華盛頓總統在Mount Vernon房舍模型、絲製品和茶道來吸引觀眾。總之,從參觀人次和詳被研究報導的內容來看,此次遠東文物的展覽中應屬藏傳佛教文物最廣為人知,可能流布影響最大。
Abstract From May 27th to November 1st, 1933 and from May 25th to October 31st, 1934, during the depths of the Great Depression, Chicago hosted a World's Fair entitled “A Century of Progress.” Through differently themed halls and amusement parks, the fair emphasized the scientific progress made during the previous century, so that visitors would look forward to life in the future. It not only stimulated Chicago's economy but also served to comfort people at a time when they felt helpless. The Art Institute of Chicago was in charge of curating and displaying the art in the official exhibition. Although Chinese and Japanese art was not formally included, the Art Institute devoted two galleries during the fair to an exhibition of Japanese prints in the collection of Clarence Buckingham. The main fair venue also featured a carefully reconstructed Chinese lamaist temple, the “Potala of Jehol,” that the Swedish explorer Sven Hedin had discovered; Vincent Bendix provided funding for the temple's shipping and reconstruction. Tibetan Buddhist artifacts were also displayed inside. Because hostilities between China and Japan had already broken out over Manchuria, and Japan's invasion of Jehol just before the fair had drawn international condemnation, the two country's displays shrank compared with earlier international expositions. The most important artworks in the Chinese pavilion were an elaborate jade pagoda and lacquer busts of historical figures. In June 1934, Parish-Watson & Co. also arranged for the display of 18 gold treasures that had been made as a birthday gift for the Qianlong emperor. The objects' decorative motifs related to both the Han Chinese and Tibetan cultures. The fair organizers further promoted this exhibit through various activities. The Japanese pavilion meanwhile drew visitors with enactments of the tea ceremony, silk products, and a model of George Washington's Mount Vernon home made of shells and pearls. In sum, considering the attendance numbers, the brochures and newspaper reports, the Tibetan Buddhist art had the greatest visibility and perhaps the widest impact of all the varieties of Asian art on display.
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