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第 6  期

學術論文
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由「情」至「幻」─明刊本《西廂記》版畫插圖探究
From Passion to Illusion─Studies of the Woodblock Print Illustration to Romance of the Western Chamber Published in the Ming Dynasty
作者 徐文琴
Author Hsu Wen-Chin
關鍵詞 全文式插圖齣(折)目插圖詩詞曲文插圖「自由體」式插圖王驥德李贄湯顯祖
Keywords ‘picture above - text below', Illustrations to ‘Act', Illustrations to the songs (prose), ‘Mixed type' illustrations, ‘Free style' illustrations, Wang Jide, Li Zhi, Tang Xianzu
摘要 這篇論文將明朝時期所出版的「西廂記」版畫插圖,依其內容、功能及可能出版的形式分成以下五類,逐一加以討論:一、全文式插圖。二、齣(折)目插圖。三、詩詞曲文插圖。四、「自由體」式插圖。五、單行本。每一種類插圖摘取一個或數個版本作代表,進行比較詳細的分析研究。
研究中發現「西廂記」插圖依其性質又可分為「說明性插圖」及「鑑賞性插圖」兩種。第一種類插圖目的在於表達故事情節,交代劇情,有幫助讀者按圖吟唱、了解劇本關目發展及協助演員舞台演出的功能和作用。在第二種類插圖中,優美的曲文或相關詩文的欣賞成為插圖的主題。經由曲文或詩文的選擇,以及圖畫表現方式,可以呈現插畫家對劇本的欣賞角度、鑒評,甚或藉以表達其人生觀。這一類插圖的內容有與文本愈行愈遠的傾向,並已超越純粹插圖的功能。根據此種發展情勢,本論文推論1640年閔齊伋刊彩色版畫以單行本形式發行。
由弘治本全文插圖到閔寓五本的單行本,《西廂記》插圖無論在版式或表現手法上都變化多端,沒有其他的文學作品插圖可以與之抗衡。其內容則表現了明朝人的哲理和人生觀,同樣不容忽視。
Abstract This article divides the woodblock print illustrations to illustrated editions of The Romance of The Western Chamber published in the Ming period into five categories and studies them in sequence: (1) illustrations to the entire text; (2) illustrations to acts in the play; (3) illustrations to poems, songs, and prose passages in the play; (4) “free-style” illustrations; (5) woodblock prints published independently, not as illustrations in a book. For each kind of illustration, examples from one or several editions of The Romance of the Western Chamber are chosen for more detailed study and examination.
It is discovered that, according to their functions and nature, the illustrations to this play can be further classified into “explanatory illustrations” and “appreciative illustrations.” Explanatory illustrations seek mainly to depict the story episodes or highlights in a clear, graceful or dramatic manner, so as to enhance the readers' interest, and to increase their understanding or appreciation of the play. “Appreciative illustrations” focus on the songs and relevant poems in the play. The selection of songs or poetic passages, and they way they are illustrated, reveals what the illustrators evaluated and appreciated, or even their personal opinions on the play. Subjects not related to the play, such as bird and flower paintings or landscape paintings, are sometimes included amongst the illustrations; as they tend further from the play's content and text, they also go beyond the function of pure illustration. At the end of this article, I suggest that the color woodblock print album engraved in 1640, in the collection of the Koln Museum, Germany, was published independently, not to illustrate any single edition of the play.
The Xixiangji woodblock print illustrations published in the Ming dynasty are unparalleled in its demonstrations of wide variety of styles, forms and expressive techniques. The later Ming editions also reflect more and more of the anti-Confucian sentiments, pessimistic thoughts, and passive attitudes of Buddhism and Taoism that prevailed at that period.
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