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第 12  期

學術論文
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何真即為真:十三世紀畫家之眼
How Real is Real: The Thirteenth Century Painter's Eye
作者 艾瑞慈
Author Richard Edwards
關鍵詞 馬遠馬麟宋畫感知
Keywords Ma Yuan, Ma Lin, Song painting, Perception
摘要 這篇文章乃是敘述十三世紀中國畫家在感知與表達其周遭山水時,所發生的一種轉變。在簡短回顧如宗炳 (375-443)、郭熙 (約1023-1085)和韓拙 (約活動於1095-1123)等人的著名畫論,以說明當時畫家對於「距離」愈趨複雜的觀點後,我們的注意力被帶到一些具代表性十三世紀中製作的小尺寸扇面畫作,而這些作品也反映了此種改變。實際上,此種感知上的變化,導致一種走向格式化及逐漸強調理想圖像的趨勢。雖然此種改變之符碼在作品中的確是顯而易見的,如馬遠(1190-1235)《柳岸遠山圖》;馬遠之子馬麟(約1220-1260)的作品,更凸顯出此種改變,如《靜聽松風圖》、《蘭花圖》、《夕陽山水圖》、《坐看雲起圖》。
Abstract This article describes the transformation that occurred during the thirteenth century in the way Chinese artists perceived and presented the landscapes around them. After briefly reviewing well-known writings from figures such as Zong Bing 宗炳 (375-443), Guo Xi 郭熙 (ca. 1023-ca. 1085), and Han Zhuo 韓拙 (act. ca. 1095-1123), to illustrate the increasingly complex views artists had concerning “distance,” our attention is directed toward a number of representative small-scale paintings from the thirteenth century that reflect this change. In practice, the shift in perception led to a tendency toward greater stylization and an increasing emphasis on the idea-image. Although signs of this change are already visible in works such as Ma Yuan's馬遠 (1190-1235) Bare Willows and Distant Mountains, the change becomes more pronounced among works by Ma Yuan's son, Ma Lin馬麟 (1220s-1260s), such as, for example, Listening to the Wind in the Pines, Orchid, Evening, and Watching the Time the Clouds Arise.
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