FaceBook pڭ
第 68  期

專題論文
Special Issue

  (83)
從佛教的觀點談病人自主權
Buddhist’s Perspestive of Patient’s Right of Autonomy
作者 釋照量
Author Zhao-Liang Shih
關鍵詞 佛教安寧緩和醫療病人自主權善終特殊拒絕 權特殊請求權安樂死醫助自殺
Keywords Buddhism, palliative treatment, patient autonomy right, good death, special right of withdrawal, special right of request, euthanasia, physician assisted suicide
摘要 安寧緩和醫療條例自從民國 89 公告實施已接近二十年,另一
部亦是標榜病維護病人自主與善終的「病人自主權利法」,適用的
對象不只限末期病患,而是同時涵蓋處於不可逆轉之昏迷狀況、
永久植物人狀態、極重度失智、其他經中央主管機關公告之病人
疾病狀況或痛苦難以忍受、疾病無法治癒且依當時醫療水準無其
他合適解決方法之情形。且病患可以自主拒絕的醫療已從無效醫
療擴大至部分可有效維持生命的治療,拒絕的考量點主要是以所
處的疾病狀態之生命質素。這樣的改變所帶來的衝擊,對醫療人
員不可謂不大。
我國近年來社會上有一股力量希望能將病人的自主權再擴
大,希望能有請求安樂死與醫助自殺的權利。就法律的權利來
說,此乃從安寧緩和醫療條例與病人自主權利法的特殊拒絕權希
望擴充到能有特殊請求權。在這不斷擴充的病人自主權的滑坡
中,佛法是如何看待呢?又會在哪裡訂出止滑點?
佛教的生命觀平等的看待生命中由生、老、病、死串起的每
一個階段,並認為生命的維持,是為了可以修道。當一個人生命質素不佳,已到無法用功修道的狀態,就可以不勉強維持,但前
提是不可以外力提早結束生命,因為這樣已是殺生的行為。是
以,就佛法觀點安寧緩和醫療例乃至病人自主權利法所賦予病患的特殊拒絕權並不包含以外力提早結束生命的權利,僅不以醫療或外力維持生命質素不佳的生命。安樂死與醫助自殺所需求特殊請求權,乃企圖擴充權利至可以要求以外力提早結束生命質素不佳的生命,這樣的特殊請求權已經逾越佛法的倫理要求。
Abstract The law of palliative treatment has been put forward since Year 2000, and

now another law for the protection of the autonomy and good death of the

patient, Autonomy Patient Right Act, expands the application of patients beyond

those terminal patients and includes irreversible vegetative, permanent

vegetative, seriously retarded patients and other patients that the central medical

institute announces as patients with unbearable pain, incurable and according to

the present medical technology could not be treated with other methods. Patient

could autonomous reject not only ineffective treatment but also life sustaining

water and nuitritions. The point of consideration is the quality of life of the

patient. This change brings serious impact to the medical professionals.

There is a stream of power that wants to expand the autonomy of the

patient in order to let patient have the right to euthanasia and physician assisted

suicide. It is an expansion of the legal right from special right of rejection to a

right of special request. In such a slipperly development of patient’s right of

autonomy, what would Buddhism respond and how to set the line for stopping

point?

Buddhism sees equality of life and life is a series of stages running through

birth, getting old and die. The maintaining of life is for practice. When one;s

quality of life is no good, and when it comes to the stage of could not do any more practice, we should not try to maintain life, but the premise is not to

accelerate death. For such acts are acts of killing. Hence, for Buddhism the

acceptance of refuse of living on in the law of palliative treatment and the Act of

Patient Autonomy Right does not include the use of external force in ending life.

Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide is an attempt to expand the request of

employing external force to end the life of those with a low quality of life, but

this has trespassing the ethical line of Buddhism.
從臨終死亡的概念與儒家親子關係反省 病人自主權利法之意涵1
/ 李瑞全    Shui-Chuen Lee
從《民法典侵權責任編(草案)(二次審 議稿)》第九百九十五條談「臨床醫療強 制干預權」的失範
/ 胡曉翔    Xiao-Xiang Hu
病人自主權 ──從善終論生命自主的困境與出路
/ 蕭玉霜    Yu-Shuang Hsiao
從儒家的觀點省察台港兩地有關 活體器官捐贈的相關規定
/ 黃漢忠    Hon-Chung Wong
© 2017 NCU Journal of Humanities. All Rights Reserved.