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第 64  期

專題論文
Special Issue

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山林倫理是公民倫理 — 由「無痕山林」與〈失去山林的孩子〉 談起
Woodland Ethics As Civic Virtue Ethics
作者 劉久清
Author Chiu-Chin Liu
關鍵詞 山林倫理公民德行倫理多元他者無痕山林超越 無痕山林
Keywords Woodland ethics, civic virtue ethics, many others, Leave No Trace
摘要 「無痕山林」倫理守則的提出,是因為有大量進入山林遊憩的人,對山林的保育、維護造成巨大威脅、傷害;但是,又有《失去山林的孩子》之類書籍,努力論證人與山林親近、走入山林的必要,進而推動、推廣進入山林之活動。對此,僅只宣導、實踐「無痕山林」,是否足以解決更多、更大量人口進入山林遊憩對山林的威脅?是值得探討的。何況,人類行為對山林之威脅,不只發生於在山林遊憩時,而是日常生活即在發生的,且實踐「無痕山林」固然可能減輕對山林的傷害,卻未必減輕對整個地球生態的傷害。

因此,對山林之維護、保育必須由整個生態體系的層面著眼,而且並非只是進入山林遊憩者,乃是全體人民的責任。這也意味著,對於相關的倫理準則應如何制訂?訂定何種內容?訂定的準則應如何推廣?與山林相關的種種科技創新、展與應用,不應再只是由政府、非政府組織與業界廠商決定,需有整個社會的全體成員共同參與商討、訂定相關的倫理準則、規範、教育實踐以及與進入山林遊憩活動相關的種種科技創新。

一個能夠如此參與的人就是一個積極主動公民,而且是本於德行倫理,不只有彼此互為多元他者的體認,更能將山林亦視為我們自始即與之共同生活、成長、休戚相關的多元他者,而非我們主觀意志投射的客體、我們進行遊憩的場所或所以滿足人類需求的對象。唯有在這樣的認知下,才有可能在全體公民與政府、非政府組織、業界廠商共同合作下,發展出真正能夠使人類與山林共蒙利益,而不致相互損害且實際可行之倫理準則、科技創新。
Abstract The ethical code of the "Leave No Trace" was proposed because a large number of people who entered the woodland (mountains and forests) to recreation had caused great threats and injury to the conservation and maintenance of the woodland. However, there were books such as LAST CHILD IN THE WOODS: Saving Our Children from Nature-Deficit Disorder, and efforts to demonstrate the closeness of the woodland and the need to step into the woodland will further promote the activities of entering the woodland. In this regard, merely advocating and practicing "Leave No Trace" is enough to solve the threat of more people entering the mountain forests on the woodland? It is worth exploring. What's more, the threat of human actions to the woodland not only occurs when they are recreate in the woodland, but also occurs in daily life. However, practicing "Leave No Trace" may reduce the damage to the mountains and forests, but it may not necessarily reduce the damage to the entire earth ecology.



Therefore, the maintenance and conservation of woodland must be in the overall ecological system level, and it is not just the people who enter the woodland to recreate, but the responsibility of the entire people. This also means that what kind of content should be formulated and set for relevant ethical standards? How should the proposed guidelines be promoted?The various technological innovations, developments, and applications related to mountain forests should no longer be solely determined by the government, nongovernmental organizations, and industry. All members of the entire society must participate in discussions and formulate relevant ethical guidelines, norms, educational practices and various scientific and technological innovations related to access to woodland recreation activities.



A person who can participate in this way is an active citizen with virtue ethics. He is not only aware of each other as many others, the woodland is also considered as we have to live with it from the beginning, growth, solidarity with the many others, not objects that our subjective will projects, places we recreating, or objects that satisfy human needs. Only in this sense can it be possible to develop, with the cooperation of all citizens and governments, nongovernmental organizations and industry manufacturers, the ethical principles and technological innovations that will truly enable humanity and the forest to share their interests without damaging each other.


山林倫理:導言
/ 蕭振邦    Jenn-Bang Shiau
1
走出「樹文明」之倫理悖論 — 為 The Tree: Meaning and Myth 做中文版序所思
/ 劉悅笛    Yue-Di Liu
9
奈斯的深層山林哲學
/ 程進發    Chin-Fa, Cheng
89
關於 Shirin Abedinirad 招喚 (Evocation) 系列作品的自然反思
/ 蘇子媖    Tzu-Ying Su
113
山水自然與生命的整體觀照 — 譚家哲對於謝靈運 「山水行旅詩作」的解析
/ 李德材    Te-Tsai Lee
127
臺灣山林哲學的行動與建構
/ 蔡智豪    Jr-Hao Tsai
155
「尊天而保真」— 論《淮南子》的道論及 其精神修養之義涵
/ 周貞余    Chen-Yu Chou
173
走路非常哲學 — Frédéric Gros《走路,也是一種哲學》
/ 廖育正    Yu-Cheng Liao
199
留給「自然」半個地球 — 審美的體驗
/ 林春銀    Chun-Yin Lin
217
從隱喻看山林:一種環境觀
/ 瞿慎思    Shen-Si Qu
239
山林倫理: 環境倫理個體論者的解題探究
/ 彭春翎    Chuen-Ling Peng
256
山林自然的暴力與療癒
/ 林淑文    Shu-Wen Lin
285
現代詩中的山水 — 以余怒詩作為例
/ 聶豪    Nieh Hao
321
山林倫理:體驗與推想
/ 蕭振邦    Jenn-Bang Shiau
349
論李奧波德的生態中心主義 — 以《沙郡年記》中的威斯康辛州和沙郡為例
/ 徐佐銘    Tsuo-Ming Hsu
391
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