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第 28  期

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台灣齋堂個案研究——以大溪齋明寺為中心
A Case Study of Taiwanese Zhaitang—Focus on Zhaiming Monastery in Daxi
作者 吳學明
Author Hsueh-Ming Wu
關鍵詞 齋堂齋明寺台灣佛教日本曹洞宗
Keywords Zhaitang, Zhaiming Monestry, Taiwanese Buddhism, Japanese Soto Shu System
摘要 「齋堂」為齋教信徒持齋禮佛的地方。齋明寺位於桃園縣大溪鎮,是一歷史攸久的寺院。經由福份宮、齋明堂、齋明寺到今日成為法鼓山志業的一環,其歷史發展多變由此可見。
在皇民化運動之前,齋明堂仍維持齋堂的形式。與鄰近齋堂往來密切,與正信佛教支派的往來也相當頻繁。使齋明堂的住持,在當時台灣佛教界相當活躍。此外,齋明寺與日本佛教界也維持相當的關係。皇民化運動展開後,齋明堂成為日本曹洞宗系統的寺廟,並更名為「齋明寺」,是台灣大多數寺院在皇民化運動時期求生存的途徑。
歷來齋明寺住持所領導的誦經團,獨具特色,透過功德法會,活躍於桃園、台北和基隆地區。近年來隨著正信佛教的盛行,誦經功德專業化,加上農村人口流失,齋明寺住持之子弟雖然也持齋唸佛,但多往城市發展,使齋堂生命力的活水受到影響,因乏人承繼造成萎縮,終至無法延續齋教菜堂的傳統。此種現象是否為台灣齋堂發展的普遍現象,值得觀察。
Abstract “Zhaitang”(齋堂) is where Chai Chiao(齋教) followers pray and hold ceremony. Located in Daxi Town, Taoyuan County, Zhaiming Monastery is a time-honored monastery. Its transformation from Fu-fen Temple, Zhaimingtang, into Zhaiming Monastery, which is part of the Dharma Drum Mountain, indicating its shifting history.
Before the Japanese Movement, Zhaimingtang maintained to be a “civilian religion”, and in the meanwhile, it kept communicate with nearby zhaitangs frequently. As a result, the host of Zhaimingtang was active in Taiwan’s religious circle. In addition, Zhaimingtang also maintained a good relationship with Japanese Buddhist circle. After the Japanese Movement, Zhaimingtang became a temple under the Japanese Soto Shu system(曹洞宗), and renamed as “Zhaiming Monastery”, which was the survival strategy most temples took during the Japanese Movement.
For a long time, recitation group conducted by Zhaiming Monastery’s hosts have been unique, and been active in Taoyuan, Taipei, and Keelung areas by the means of blessing ceremonies. With recent prevalence of Buddhism, professionalism of blessing recitation, and agricultural population being shrinking, although pupils of Zhaiming Monastery still pray most of them move to cities.Consequently, the monastery’s vitality has been depleted and there is a lack of heir to the tradition of monastery. Whether such situation is general among the development of Taiwanese zhaitangs is worth our attention.
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