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第 28  期

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南特船商杜勃亥的中國之行(1817-1827) 及其中國工藝收藏: 一個法中經濟文化交流的見證
Thomas Dobree’s Trade Trips to China (1817-1827)and His Chinese Handicrafts Collection: An Account of Economic and Cultural Exchange between France and China
作者 李明明
Author Ming-ming Lee
關鍵詞 遠洋貿易文化交流中國外銷畫貿易瓷NantesDobree
Keywords cultural exchange, Chinese trade painting, export porcelain, Nantes, Dobree
摘要 十八世紀末法國大革命動亂,導致中法貿易關係完全停頓。在法國皇室兩次復辟期間(1814-1834),南特(Nantes)船商杜勃亥(T. Dobree)曾四次派遣商船經印度到廣州,企圖恢復十八世紀由東印度公司代表的中法貿易關係,並數次自中國收購工藝品。杜勃亥四次中國之行的經濟效益並不理想,不過,通過此遠洋貿易可探究十九世紀初期,在西歐殖民經濟政策的大環境下,法國官方與企業界的對華態度,以及由此經濟目標帶動的中法關係。
中國之行所攜帶返法的中國工藝品,包括外銷畫、貿易瓷等約有兩百三十件,現藏當地杜勃亥美術館中。此批文物由杜勃亥親自繪製或委託其艦長或商務總監選購,是否可為嘉慶、道光年間,中國自廣州出口的工藝製作提供訊息;其中,陶瓷、繪畫數量的比例,以及其型製、紋飾的特色又如何反映十九世紀初期法國中產階級的生活藝術旨趣?本文希望為上述問題提供一個區域性案例,也是中西文化研究中一個自法國角度的思考方向。
Abstract
This study focuses on the cultural and economic significance of Thomas Dobree's four trade trips between France and China from 1817 to 1827. We try to reveal the background of the French official and businessmen's attitude toward China and the colonial policy of the Western Europe at the beginning of the nineteenth century.
One of the important topics of this study is to investigate the existing art crafts brought to France by Dobree. The collection consists of 230 pieces of Chinese trade paintings and chinaware. Most of them are table services ordered or designed by Dobree. A close study on these handicrafts will allow us to draw information on the art craft industry for exportation in Guangdong during the Jiaqing and Daoguang period (1810-1830). Also, by studying the differences in their designs and motives, we hope to gain clear ideas on the artistic taste of the French bourgeois in the nineteenth century.
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