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第 31  期

專題論文
Special Issue

  (540)
「奪胎換骨」的新變——晏幾道《小山詞》「詩人句法」之借鑒詩句探析
An Innovative “Seizing of the Embryo” and “Changing of the Bone”: An Analysis of Yan Jidao’s Borrowing of Poetic Lines in his “Shi Poet’s Method of Composition,” as seen in his Xiaoshan ci
作者 卓清芬
Author Ching-fen Cho
關鍵詞 晏幾道小山詞借鑒詩句詩人句法
Keywords Yan Jidao, Xiaoshan ci, borrowing from poetic lines, shi poet’s method of composition
摘要 北宋著名詞人晏幾道(1038-1110),有《小山詞》一卷行世。其摯友黃庭堅(1045-1105)在〈小山詞序〉中提及晏幾道的詞作「寓以詩人之句法」,為其後「以詩為詞」的討論開啟了先聲。
「以詩為詞」指詞在內容、題材、風格、意境、修辭技巧上受到詩的滲透和影響,所產生的「詩化」現象。元祐時期,「以詩為詞」已成為當時詞壇的普遍現象。「以詩為詞」的作法,以「借鑒前人詩句」的技巧最為常見,同時也是黃庭堅重要的詩論「奪胎換骨」、「點鐵成金」在詞體上的具體實踐。
本文旨在分析晏幾道《小山詞》借鑒前人詩句的技巧,了解晏幾道借鑒前人詩句的情形,並從詞體與詩體的交融涵攝、以作詩的態度和方法填詞、錘鍊翻新、綺麗中見清逸的語言風格、雅正含蓄的美感等方向歸納《小山詞》借鑒詩句的意義。亦從詞家對《小山詞》借鑒前人詩句的評論,分析晏幾道如何在前人的詩句中翻出新意,建立個人特色。
Abstract The famous Northern Song ci poet Yan Jidao (1038-1110) left the world his ci poetry collection
Xiaoshan ci (Ci Poems of Yan Xiaoshan). In the collection’s preface, Yan’s close friend Huang Tingjian (1045-1105) highlighted Yan’s writing of ci poems as using the method of composition of a shi poet. This inaugurated the discussion of the methodology of “turning shi poems into ci poems” in the mid-Northern Song period.

“Turning shi poems into ci poems” refers to the penetration and influence of shi poetry on ci poetry in terms of content, subject matter, style, mood, and rhetorical techniques. In the Yuanyou period (1086-1194), this methodology became common in ci poetry writing. This was most commonly seen in the technique of borrowing from the works of poets in the past, and it was also a manifestation of Huang Tingjian’s important theory of poetry ── “to seize the embryo” and “to change the bone” (“duotai huangu”) and “to change iron into gold” (“diantie cheng jin”) in the writing of ci poetry.
This article analyzes Yan Jidao’s Xiaoshan ci to improve our knowledge of Yan’s technique of borrowing lines from former poets, and discusses the significance of Yan’s techniques in the development of ci poetry. This includes the fusing in form of ci and shi poetry, writing ci poetry with the methods and attitude applied in shi poetry, rhetorical refinement and meaning innovation, the display of a pure and lofty style of shi poetry in resplendent ci poetry, and the aesthetic requirement of elegance and indirectness. It also discusses ci poets’ comments on Yan’s borrowing of the lines of former poets in his Xiaoshan ci, in order to grasp the individuality of his ci poetry.
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