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第 35  期

專題論文
Special Issue

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張岱《四書遇》註解四書之特色
The Special Characteristics of Chang Dai’s Interpretations on Four Books in Encounter with Four Books
作者 鄧克銘
Author Keh-ming Deng
關鍵詞 張岱四書四書遇三教晚明
Keywords Chang Dai, Four Books, Wang Yang-ming, Chu Tzu, Late Ming
摘要 張岱在明末清初以文學、史學聞名於世,著有《四書遇》一書,然而生前未曾刊行,抄本於一九八五年經點校出版後,始得流通。此書與晚明大量出現之四書註解,在引述文獻上有共通處,但具有獨特的個人風格與思想特色。
《四書遇》博採經史子集與佛道典籍,其註解四書基本上仍屬儒家重人倫、修身與經世之立場。本文分別說明其書中之陽明心學的傾向、對程朱理學的取捨、廣引經史子集及佛道之意義,並進一步探討其重要之思想觀念,包括性體無善無惡說、經世觀念之提倡與融合三教之方式。張岱之《四書遇》有力地刻畫出晚明知識分子對完美人格與治世理想的追求,富有濃厚的個人生命感觸與時代精神,對今日之四書研究有重要的參考價值。
Abstract Chang Dai is well known for his literary and historical works in the late Ming Dynasty and early Ching Dynasty. But his famous work, the Encounter with Four Books, was not published until handwritten copies were finally circulated among the general public in 1985. Despite its similarities in formality with numerous other interpretations of Four Books in the late Ming Dynasty, Chang’s work still manages to show unique personal style and characteristics in thinking.
The ideas in Encounter with Four Books were widely adopted from ancient Chinese writings and Buddhist Taoist records. The viewpoints were greatly influenced by Confucian thinking in moral principles of human relationships, self-cultivation, and sage-statesmanship. This thesis will demonstrate respectively the tendencies toward Wang Yang-ming’s theory of mind in this book, the attitude toward Chu Tzu, and the meanings of wide adoption of ancient works. Furthermore, important concepts such as essence of human nature, promotion of Confucian sage-statesmanship, and the mixture of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism will also be explored. Encounter with Four Books by Chang Dai reveals the intellectual pursuit in the late Ming Dynasty of a perfect personality and an ideal way of running the country. Deep personal emotions to life and contemporary spirit that is exhibited in this book brings significant inspiration to present cultural and conceptual trends.
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37
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83
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125
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/ 陸敬忠    Jing-Jong Luh
469
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217
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/ 劉旨峰    Eric Zhi-feng Liu
261
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287
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