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第 37  期

專題論文
Special Issue

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主體的重構:論賈誼憑弔屈原的深層意涵
Subjectivity Reconstructed: On the Rhapsody on mourning for Qu Yuan by Jia Yi
作者 許又方
Author Yu-fang Hsu
關鍵詞 屈原賈誼弔屈原賦主體性自我認同
Keywords Qu Yuan, Jia Yi, Rhapsody on mourning for Qu Yuan, subjectivity, self identity
摘要 本論文啟自一個問題:既然賈誼是受謗而遷長沙王太傅,並非犯了什麼明顯的過錯,而且遷放亦不是光彩的事,從〈弔屈原賦〉藉屈原遭遇影射時局可知他心中的不滿,唯何以他在本賦要以「恭承嘉惠,俟罪長沙」這般委屈自我、歌頌聖恩的字詞啟首?只是一種必要的書寫習慣?欲作諷刺之辭?抑或它其實隱寄著傳統仕子身處帝國體制下,那種主體不能自決的矛盾與無奈?果如是,則憑弔屈原的行為,在一定程度上可視作賈誼藉古思己、企圖尋求主體認同並重構自我屬性的過程。再者,賈誼看似可以理解屈原自殺的意義,卻為何在賦中要責備屈原不懂神德自藏之道,甚至認為他應該效法戰國游士任意去國的行徑?這些責勸之詞,究竟是否為賈誼主體情志之折射?綜此來看,〈弔屈原賦〉顯然具有心理與哲學層面探索的價值。本文將透過對〈弔屈原賦〉的細讀,並參酌賈誼其它作品,對上述的問題做一審慎的推論,期能在一般學者習將〈弔屈原賦〉置於與屈原作品比較的研究基礎上,推展出有關文人藉弔古以重構自身主體的觀點。
Abstract Numerous studies have been made by scholars to compare Jia Yi (賈誼) with Qu Yuan (屈原) through their life stories and poems, little is known about the personal sentiment, known as subjectivity, of Jia Yi’s Rhapsody on mourning for Qu Yuan (弔屈原賦). Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to offer an interpretation of the Rhapsody from the perspective of the reconstruction of subjectivity. Wherefore, my point of view will base on an important concept: Poems often address us in ways that demand identification, and identification works to create identity. According to this concept, I consider Jia Yi wanted to express his personal sentiment and reconstruct his subjectivity via mourning for Qu Yuan. In other words, Jia Yi reconstructed (or requested) himself through reading Qu Yuan’s life and works. I will analyze the Rhapsody and refer the other works of Jia Yi’s, and discuss this question from philosophy and psychological angles.
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