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第 41  期

一般論文
General Article

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周亮工的「反流派」詩學
Zhou Liang-Gong’s “Anti-School” Poetics
作者 謝明陽
Author Ming-yang Hsieh
關鍵詞 清初詩學七子派竟陵派周亮工反流派
Keywords poetics in the early Qing Dynasty, Seven Poets School, Jing-Ling School, Zhou Liang-Gong, Anti-School
摘要 明代的詩學流派蜂出並作,彼此爭勝。及至清初,七子與竟陵兩陣營之後學對於詩歌創作的問題,依然各持己見而喧擾不休,因此,檢討明代以來的流派論爭,便成為清初詩學的重要任務。對於此一流派現象,清初文壇領袖之一的周亮工提出一套「反流派」論述,其說主張「樹千萬五色幟」,亦即在主合不主分的立場上,兼融各色風格而泯去門戶之別;欲達此目標,則須藉助「盡刪其姓名而獨存其詩」的選詩策略,也就是編選一部沒有作者姓名的詩歌選集,讓詩人的性情直接呈現於讀者面前;這樣的選詩策略消除了流派界限,也無門戶可以依傍,周亮工期望詩人當「卓然成一家言」的理想,也因而得以宣揚。文章之末,更取周亮工的畫學、印學與其詩學相對照,以證知周亮工的「反流派」思想實已從詩學範疇擴展到藝術理論的層面。
Abstract In the Ming Dynasty, a great number of poetic schools thrived with diverging claims. And it showed no sign of cease up into the early Qing Dynasty. Adhering to their own opinions, Seven Poets School and Jing-Ling School still continued with the arguments over the issue of poetic composition. Hence, reviewing the arguments between poetic schools descending from the Ming Dynasty has become a significant task for the poetics of the early Qing Dynasty. One of the literary leaders in the early Qing, Zhou Liang-Gong, thus, raised an “Anti-school” theory about the school phenomenon, in which he advocated the concept of “Erecting tens of thousands of five-color banners,” i.e. on the basis of coordination instead of differentiation, to include the style of various schools elastically and eliminate their schools. To reach the goal, a “No name, only content” poem-selecting strategy was proposed to compile a collection of poems, in which the names of the poets were omitted deliberately with a view to presenting their true temperaments in front of the readers. Such a strategy not only blurred the border between different schools but also left them no ground to lay their foundation. Zhou Liang-Gong’s belief that poets should achieve some sort of authority in a specific field, could hence be publicized and further exalted. At the end of the essay, a contrast is further drawn among Zhou Liang Goang’s painting, printing and poetic theories to exemplify that Zhou’s “Anti-School” thought had actually been elevated from the level of poetics to that of theoretical level of art.
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