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第 50  期

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論劉吶鷗、穆時英和張愛玲小說的「電影視覺化表述」
A Discussion on “Visual Expression” in the Novels of Liu Na'ou, Mu Shiying and Eileen Chang
作者 梁慕靈
Author Mo-ling Rebecca Leung
關鍵詞 劉吶鷗穆時英張愛玲電影視覺化表述
Keywords Liu Na'ou, Mu Shiying, Eileen Chang, visual expression of movies
摘要 本文討論了劉吶鷗、穆時英和張愛玲的小說怎樣以不同的「電影視覺化表述」方式去表現他們心目中的中國。過往研究劉吶鷗和穆時英的小說,多強調他們跟日本新感覺派小說和法國保爾‧穆杭小說的關係。本文則認為,劉吶鷗和穆時英在引入並改寫這些外來文學資源以外,亦加入了電影的視覺表述方法,創造出適用於本土的文學表現方法。劉吶鷗對電影的視覺本質十分重視,他的貢獻在於提升攝影機視覺的地位,並且運用到小說的表述模式之中。穆時英繼承了這種電影視覺的表述方法,一方面加強了對蒙太奇的運用,一方面又採用了古典好萊塢電影的敘述特徵,用以表現上海社會貧富不均的生活情況,使「電影視覺化表述」更具本土的特色。接著到張愛玲的出現,她對傳統中國小說和鴛鴦蝴蝶派的熟悉,使她能夠把「電影視覺化表述」跟小說的講述模式調和。她利用漢語語法可以省略某些句子的主語,以及無須變換時態、語態的特徵,在小說中自由地把人物的視覺轉換成敘述者的視覺,由此就可以自由滲入敘述者的意識。透過這種方法,她可以自由靈活地加入敘述者的看法和反思,對「電影視覺化表述」進行補充和評價。本文接著分析了劉吶鷗和穆時英在文學場域中的位置,特別是他們這種「視覺化表述」怎樣被認為跟帝國主義和殖民主義有密切關係。這些都顯示劉吶鷗和穆時英對中國的想像,並未能在場域中完全得到其他勢力的接納。張愛玲調和的做法則滿足了戰爭時期對小說「視覺化表述」和現實主義講述模式之間調和的需要;一方面以「視覺化表述」表現中國的現代想像,一方面又對這種想像進行省思和啟示。
Abstract This paper examined how Liu Na'ou, Mu Shiying and Eileen Chang used the technique of “visual expression” to imagine China in their novels. In previous studies, Liu Na'ou’s and Mu Shiying’s novels were primarily examined relative to Japanese Neo-Sensationism and the writings of Paul Morand. This paper highlighted that in addition to mere assimilation of these foreign literary elements into their works, Liu Na'ou and Mu Shiying used “visual expression” to develop another narrative paradigm with local color. Liu Na'ou’s emphasis on the visual quality of movies not only raised the importance of camera vision in literature, but also motivated greater use of vision associated with the camera in his novels. Following the same approach to use “visual expression” as a narrative strategy, Mu Shiying described the unequal distribution of wealth in Shanghai through fostering the use of montage and adapting the classical Hollywood narrative into his works. By doing so, the technique of “visual expression” was made even more responsive to the local context. Eileen Chang was another great writer after Liu Na'ou and Mu Shiying. She strived to harmonize “visual expression” with the mode of narration based on her knowledge in traditional Chinese novel as well as the Mandarin Duck and Butterfly School. According to Chinese grammar, the subject of a sentence could be omitted under certain circumstances. Also, there are no tenses and active/passive voice distinction. Eileen Chang capitalized on these unique properties of Chinese grammar to transform a character’s vision into a narrator’s vision. This conversion allowed the narrator to articulate ideas without restrain, providing the author with additional opportunities to further elaborate and evaluate “visual expression” through the narrator’s voice. Then, the paper explored the roles of Liu Na'ou and Mu Shiying in the field of literature. A particular focus was put on how their “visual expression” was perceived to be closely associated with imperialism and colonialism. Analysis suggested that Liu Na'ou’s and Mu Shiying’s imagination of China were not well-received by the entire literary community. On the other hand, Eileen Chang’s approach to harmonize “visual expression” with the realist mode of narration was more aligned with the need for reconciliation during the war period. Her “visual expression” provided a medium to convey the modern thoughts of China, which in turned encouraged more in-depth reflections on these thoughts.
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