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第 56  期

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儒家如何詮釋「氣具形而上之涵意」——以唐君毅先生論氣為例
How Does Chi Has the Metaphysical Meaning
作者 鄧秀梅
Author Hsiu-mei Teng
關鍵詞 唐君毅氣論形而上之氣儒家形而上學先天四氣
Keywords Tang Junyi, the theory of Chi, the metaphysical meaning of Chi, the innate four Chi
摘要 儒家哲學於演述天道論時,「氣」是不可或缺的元素,氣之外是否還有一超越的「本體」,大抵主張本心自立道德法則的人,必然肯定有一超越氣、妙運氣之本體存在,此本體與氣構成形而上、下兩層之關係。然而並非每一位理學家皆依循此路數發展,也有從宇宙論著手發揮的。直接從宇宙論闡釋儒家天道論,「氣」難免會是首先要正視的元素;氣為首出,那麼心、性、理、道與氣之關係是否仍維持形而上、下之層次,恐怕便不明顯。直接由自然氣化演繹人性論,孟子所證之性善是不可能成立的,如此會直接牴觸儒家的道德哲學;假若此氣並非單純的形而下的材質之義,尚具有形而上之涵意,如何陳述方能不牴觸孔孟道德哲學,以及程朱理學、陸王心學等主流的儒家學派?
自氣論著手建構天道論,有些陳論的方式確然可以論證氣具有形而上之涵意,有的則充滿許多疑點。這兩種氣論的論述方式俱存在唐君毅先生詮釋宋明理學的著述中,有的與他所闡釋朱熹、二程之道德哲學相牴觸,有的則可以調適上遂,拓展這些理學家的思想內容;而唐先生卻認為這兩種論述氣的方式均有形而上之意義。
這樣的結果十分有趣,顯示並非只要闡論氣為萬物資生便可賦予氣形而上之涵意,尚須留心此種氣論是否與傳統的儒家道德哲學衝突。本文的選材以唐先生詮釋宋明理學家的內容為主,從中疏理有的論氣方式何以會與程朱、陸王衝突,有的卻能調適擴充傳統理學之不足;由此結論亦可反觀當代學界某些主張氣論的學者,他們的論述是否真能證成氣具有形而上之涵意。
Abstract “Chi” for Heaven Confucian theory is an important and indispensable element. In addition to Chi, if this doctrine is established from the mind-heart of the moral law, then there is a substance above Chi and which dominates Chi. Substance and Chi constitute metaphysical, physical relationship. If the discussion starts from cosmology, then the Chi must first become the focus of attention, and further, the Chi could have been endowed with metaphysical meaning. But directly to the Chi as a source of all creation, will inevitably conflict with the theory of Mencius that people are by nature good. So how to explain the Chi has a metaphysical meaning which become a very important issue.
Mr. Tang Junyi researched “Chi” very in-depth, he also recognized the Chi possesses metaphysical significance. However, he explained this issue in two ways. One kind conflicted with the goodness of Mencius, another would not, even be able to expand the traditional School of Principe deficiencies. This result is very interesting and worthy of scholars to explore the reasons.
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