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第 58  期

一般論文
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從形似到傳神:中國繪畫藝術中所展現的人文真理
From Mere Similarity to Spirit Conveyed: The Truth of Humanity in Chinese Painting
作者 何佳瑞
Author Chai-jui Ho
關鍵詞 形似傳神真理繪畫
Keywords similarity of appearance, spirit, truth, painting
摘要 中國繪畫始終有著重「傳神」,重「寫意」而輕「形似」的一種傾向。「神」,「意」這兩個概念都不是從直接的「美」的角度來考量的,卻與「真」的內涵不可分割。然而,中國繪畫在達到真的當下,也同時達到了美。
本文首先闡明中國畫論中從「模仿之真」到「傳神之真」所顯現的內涵;接著援引海德格及其他相關現象學家有關藝術與真理關係的論述,藉此闡明中國繪畫中「傳神之真」的發生關鍵──主客合一,並深化論述這種超越了認識維度之真理的可能性;最後,提出莊子哲學中「真」概念所蘊含的「誠」之面向,乃為西方哲學所未曾考慮的面向,深化說明中國繪畫中所呈顯之此種具有人文深度內涵的真理特徵。
Abstract Chinese painting tends to emphasize “spirit conveyed” and “meaning transmitted” yet deemphasize the “similar appearance” of an object in painting. Neither the “spirit” nor the “meaning” of a painting is considered from the perspective of “beauty,” however inseparable from the concept of truth. Chinese painting, while revealing truth, at the same time achieves its beauty.
This paper begins by expounding the meaning of truth through imitating an object’s appearance and through conveying its “spirit” in Chinese painting. We then deepen our understanding of truth conveying “spirit” through the theories of Heidegger and other phenomenologists in order to illustrate the fact that the union of subject and object is key to the revelation of truth in painting. And at the end of this paper, we demonstrate a dimension of “sincerity” with regard to the truth to elucidate the unique feature of truth, which bears within itself the depth of humanity in Chinese painting.
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