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第 61  期

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Reflections on Maurice Ravel’s Creativity
反思拉威爾的創造性
作者 Arbie Orenstein
Author Arbie Orenstein
關鍵詞 Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), French Composer, Musical Aesthetics, Creative Process, Legacy and Future Research Goals
Keywords 拉威爾(1875-1937)、法國作曲家、音樂美學、創造過程、遺產與未來研究目標
摘要 This article, “Reflections on Maurice Ravel’s Creativity,” focuses on two important aspects of the composer's career: his musical aesthetics and his creative process. Set against the vibrant Parisian musical scene from the 1890s to the1930s, we note the important lessons that Ravel absorbed at the Conservatoire--where his only formal education took place--and his personal amalgam of some aesthetic reflections of Mozart, Baudelaire, Mallarme and Poe. We are told that composers should learn their craft like painters, by imitating good models, and the composer’s objective should be a lifelong pursuit of “technical perfection. I can strive unceasingly to this end,” Ravel observes, “since I am certain of never being able to attain it. The important thing is to get nearer to it all the time.”
An examination of Ravel’s creative process reveals that the path toward technical perfection was fraught with difficulties at every stage. His initial sketches consisted of melody and figured bass--reflecting his strict academic training at the Conservatoire--and reproductions of manuscripts and sketches in the article highlight some melodic, harmonic and rhythmic problems that he encountered.
The concluding section of this article surveys Ravel’s growing international reputation and his legacy as one of France’s most frequently performed and recorded composers. Perhaps the key to his success is the striking ability of his music to speak to laymen as well as scholars, much like his musical idol Mozart. Ravel’s home at Montfort l’Amaury is a national museum which receives many visitors from around the world. It is now some 140 years since his birth, and looking to the future, an important goal of researchers should be a scholarly edition of his complete works, similar to the one in progress for his distinguished compatriot Claude Debussy.
Abstract 本論文《反思拉威爾的創造性》主要探討作曲家創作生涯的兩個重要面向:音樂美學與創造過程。在1890年與1930年間活躍的巴黎音樂舞台,我們看到拉威爾的音樂教育養成主要歸功於他在巴黎音樂院的學習與他對莫札特、波特萊爾、馬拉美與可倫坡等人美學上的反思。對於拉威爾而言,作曲家應該學習技巧,就像畫家一樣,擬摹大作,作曲家的目標應是終身追求「技巧的完美」,並以此為職志,即使無法達到,也應該時時近乎完美。
檢視拉威爾的創作過程,發現朝向「技巧的完美」這個路程,在每個階段是困難重重。他最初的草稿包含了旋律與數字低音 ——反應出他在巴黎音樂院嚴格的學院訓練——再次謄寫稿子,之後在初稿上注明了他在旋律、和聲、節奏上所遭遇到的問題。
本文最後將探討拉威爾走向國際聲望之路與其音樂遺產。他的成功之鑰也許在於他的音樂老少皆宜,就如同莫札特的音樂。拉威爾位於Montfort l'Amaury的房子,目前成為一座國立博物館,接待來自世界各地的遊客。今年是拉威爾誕生一百四十年,對於未來的研究目標,應是編輯一套嚴謹且完整的作品目錄集,就如同正在進行的德布西全集。
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