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第 63  期

專題論文
Special Issue

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二戰後「馬來亞華人公會」的成立與馬來亞華人的政治發展(1946-1957)
The Established of “Malayan Chinese Association” and the Political Development of Malayan Chinese after World WarⅡ(1946-1957)
作者 張曉威
Author Siou-Wei Chong
關鍵詞 馬來亞華人公會馬華公會馬來亞華人中華民國領事館
Keywords Malayan Chinese Association, MCA, Chinese of Malayan, The consulate of Republic of China
摘要 馬來亞在二戰後,馬來亞共產黨(馬共)因爲協助英國殖民地政府抗擊日軍有功,所以獲得英國殖民地政府承認為合法政黨。馬共把在馬來亞建立共產政權視爲最終的鬥爭目標,號召民衆加入反殖民運動行列。英國殖民地政府因而宣佈馬共為非法組織,並在1948年6月宣佈全馬來亞進入「緊急狀態時期」。中華民國派駐馬來亞的領事館,對於華人所面臨的問題都給予積極的援助,儘管無法滿足許多華人或組織的期盼,但在該段過程中,領事館積極執行任務是應該給予肯定的。中華民國派駐馬來亞的領事館在1950年閉館,其保護華人的角色由馬來亞華人公會(馬華公會)接替。
馬華公會的成立可說是馬來亞華人政治史上一個重要的里程碑,不僅標誌著馬來亞華人逐漸對當地的認同,而且也開始促進華人團結於一個組織下。英國殖民地政府為了對抗馬共,對於馬華公會的成立亦深表支持與鼓勵,認為馬華公會的成立有助於英國人爭取華人民心及獲得華人廣泛的合作,有利抗衡馬共。在中華民國撤館,而中華人民共和國又沒設館的情況下,馬來亞華人在此危難時機,唯有設法自救,而馬華公會不僅發揮了該組織成立的宗旨,亦努力改善當時緊張的華人與馬來人種族關係,在救濟活動方面亦相當盡責。這無疑奠定馬華公會成為政黨的基礎力量,亦開啟了二戰後馬來亞華人政治發展的新局面。
Abstract After the Second World War, the Malayan Communist Party(MCP) was recognized as a legitimate political party by the British colonial government because it helped the British colonial government to fight against the Japanese army. The ultimate goal of MCP was to establish a communist regime and calling to people to join the ranks of the anti-colonial movement. Consequently, The British colonial government declared the MCP as an illegal organization, and in June 1948 placed the whole of Malaya into the “state of emergency”. During this period, the consulate of the Republic of China in Malaya has given positive assistance to the problems faced by the Chinese. Although it could not fulfill the expectations of many Chinese or organizations, the active participation from the consulate should be affirmed. The consulate of the Republic of China in Malaya was closed in 1950 and the role in safe guarding the Chinese rights was taken over by the Malayan Chinese Association (MCA).
The establishment of the MCA in 1949 was an important milestone in the history of Malayan Chinese politics. It not only represents the local identity of the Malayan Chinese, but also united the local Chinese under the organization. British colonial government expressed highly support for the establishment of MCA in order to confront the MCP and to win the support of the Chinese community. In the absence of the consulate of the Republic of China and the establishment of the embassy of the People’s Republic of China, MCA played an important role in mediating and improving the tense relation among the Chinese and the local Malay communities. Besides, it also took an active part in various relief activities. This has set a strong foundation for MCA to become a political party as well as the beginning of a new chapter of the Malayan Chinese political development immediately after the Second World War.
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