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第 72  期

特約論文
Special Contributions

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從《正蒙‧中正篇》看張載的德性教育思想
Study on Zhang Zai’s Thinking of Virtue Education from On Moderation in Zheng Meng
作者 黃崇修
Author Chong-Xiu Huang
關鍵詞 中正「四毋說」智仁勇定靜工夫無欲
Keywords Moderation(中正), The Theory of Four Nos(「四毋說」), Wisdom, benevolence and courage(智仁勇), Dingjing skill (定靜工夫), no desire(無欲)
摘要 本文基於對時下社會人際疏離問題之關懷,特別選擇張載〈中正篇〉作為當代德行倫理及德行教育之參考理論。不過由於〈中正篇〉段落內容雖然氣勢磅礡而弘大,但是囿於其內容包羅萬象而不易掌握其間義理之整體架構。於是本文以三個區塊劃分,分別就其中正觀、四毋說詮釋、三達德與五常五倫之連結等切入角度,最終建構出,張載在統合《論理》、《孟子》、《中庸》、《中庸》《大學》各文本義理的特殊貢獻。

也就是說,本文呈現出張載運用《孟子‧盡心〉:「大而化之之為聖」之觀點,藉此以說明聖人體現中道之特色,而只有達到聖人之中道,才能真正弘大而常久。不過就一般人而言,還要從孔子三十而立的學禮立場,透過形正的儀禮學習從而進入到中的狀態,而根據筆者近年的研究成果,這個狀態就是四十而不惑的中靜狀態。因此中靜形正的實踐形式便成為中國德行教育之重要基礎。

張載為了進一步說明成性、成身之品德養成,於是分別援用了《論語》「四毋說」以及《中庸》「三達德」,以彰顯大而化之之成性以及智仁勇實踐於五倫之成身格局。最後在此「中正→中正仁義→中心安仁、無欲而好仁、無畏而惡不仁→三達德(智、仁、勇)→五常(仁、義、禮、智、信)→五達道(君臣、父子、夫婦、昆弟、朋友)」義理之結構展現下,本文發現到張載之德行倫理或教育思想對於實現當代社會進入天下大同,世界和平的理想境界提供了偉大而完整之論述。
Abstract The study has selected On Moderation(〈中正篇〉)of Zhang Zai(張載)as a theory of contemporary virtue ethics and virtue education in light of the author’s concern about the issue of interpersonal alienation in the modern society. However, although the content of On Moderation was of tremendous and grand momentum, it was all-embracing, which has made it difficult for us to command the integral framework of its argumentation. Therefore, the study was divided into three sections, and the author cut them in from the perspectives of the moderation concept, the interpretation of the Theory of Four Nos, connection between three great virtues and five cardinal relationships and five

constant ethics. Last but not the least, the study concluded with Zhang Zai’s special contributions towards the integration of argumentation of the Analects of Confucius(《論語》), Mencius (《孟子》), the Doctrine of the Mean(《中庸》)and Great Learning(《大學》).



In other words, the study showed that Zhang Zai used the viewpoint of “a person who influences all creatures is called a saint” in Jinxin of Mencius(《論語‧盡心》)to illustrate the principle of being neutral that a saint represented. Only the principle of being neutral that a saint embodied could be considered grand and everlasting. However, for ordinary people, they could only enter the state of being neutral through learning rites and ceremonies from the stance of acquiring etiquette at the age of thirty as Confucius once said this was the time for one to become independent. However, based on the research results of the author in recent years, this is the state of feeling inner tranquility as there are no doubts at the age of forty. Therefore, the implementation form of tranquility in mind and integrity in appearance has become an important foundation of China’s virtue education.



To further expound the cultivation of moral character by forming certain morality and cultivating one’s moral character, Zhang Zai adopted the Theory of Four Nos in the Analects of Confucius and the three great virtues in the Doctrine of the Mean respectively to manifest the pattern of forming certain morality by influencing all creatures and cultivating one’s moral character by putting wisdom, benevolence and courage on five constant ethics into practice. Last but not least, the study found that the virtue ethics of Zhang Zai provided great and complete argumentation for the contemporary society to enter the ideal realm of universal harmony in the world and world peace under the structure of the argumentation of “moderation(「中正」)→ moderation, benevolence and justice(「中正仁義」)→ implementing benevolence at ease in mind, being fond of benevolence without desire; disliking cruelty without fear(「中心安仁、無欲而好仁、無畏而惡不仁」) → three great virtues (wisdom, benevolence; courage) (「三達德( 智、仁、勇)」) → five cardinal relationships (benevolence, justice, courtesy, wisdom; sincerity)(「五常(仁、義、禮、智、信)」)→ five great ways (ruler and minister, father and son, husband and wife, brothers and friends)(「五達道(君臣、父子、夫婦、昆弟、朋友)」)”.
定靜工夫視野下的愛情與神聖
/ 黃崇修    Chong-Xiu Huang
1
陷溺或救贖? ──論愛情關係中的依賴問題
/ 霍晉明    Jin-Ming Huoh
5
由儒家場域與處境觀點看愛情中薩提爾理論後入聖的可能性
/ 蘇子媖    Tzu-Ying Su
21
唐君毅先生的愛情哲學 ──以《愛情之福音》為中心的展開
/ 劉毅鳴    Yi-ming Liu
41
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