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第 8  期

學術論文
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魯東的自然意象與精神演化論
Odilon Redon's Nature Imagery and Spiritual Evolution
作者 曾少千
Author Shao-Chien Tseng
關鍵詞 魯東自然象徵主義演化論宗教裝飾舒禾巴舍拉
Keywords Odilon Redon, nature, Symbolism, evolutionism, religion, decoration, Edouard Schure, Gaston Bachelard
摘要 十九世紀晚期科學和宗教界對於自然的態度分歧,象徵主義畫家魯東發展豐富的自然意象,映照演化論和宗教信仰之間的辯證。關於魯東的自然圖像研究,大多著重其思想的探源,或對於不同階段的作品採取斷裂的看法,而很少討論魯東如何交涉科學、文學和宗教之間的差異,以及他的自然觀和美學的演變。本文考察魯東的風格實驗,以及藝術家自述、傳記、藝評等第一手資料,檢視演化論在法國的接受情況、象徵主義美學論述等面向。首先將討論魯東的自然書寫如何和藝術史對話,尤其是達文西的畫論和浪漫主義的自然哲學。本文闡析《起源》系列版畫混合拉馬克和達爾文的演化論,改造古典神話,表現原始生物的心理意識。魯東的水中景象粉彩、油畫和屏風作品,將以裝飾美學和哲學家巴舍拉的夢幻詩學詮釋作品。最後將論證泛靈植物和神聖人物的畫作,呼應作家舒禾的精神演化論,可視為和解科學與宗教衝突的藝術途徑。
Abstract In the late nineteenth century, science and religion adopted different attitudes toward nature. The Symbolist painter Odilon Redon developed a complex nature imagery that reflected the dialectic between evolutionism and religion. The studies on Redon's nature imagery have mostly traced the sources of his ideas or emphasized the rupture between distinct phases of his oeuvre. Scholars seldom discuss how Redon negotiated the differences among science, literature, and religion, and how his views of nature and aesthetic evolved. This paper examines Redon's stylistic experiments and words, the biographies and reviews, the reception of evolutionary theory in France, and the Symbolist aesthetic discourse. First, I will explore the dialogue between Redon's nature writing and art history, especially Leonardo's theory of painting and Romantic Naturphilosophie. Then, I elucidate how the lithographic series Les origines is informed by evolutionary theories of Lamarck and Darwin, engaged in modernizing classical mythology, and expressive of the psychological states of primitive creatures. The pastels, paintings, and screen of underwater scenes will be analyzed in light of decorative aesthetic and Gaston Bachelard's poetics of reverie. Finally Redon's paintings of pantheist nature and sacred figures will be interpreted as an artistic approach to reconcile science and religion as the spiritual evolution proposed by Edouard Schure.
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