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第 9  期

學術論文
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由迷孃〈唯有知道渴望的人〉管窺舒伯特歌曲風格
The Repeated Settings of “Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt”: A Study of Schubert's Song Style
作者 易繼心
Author Chi-Hsin Yi
關鍵詞 舒伯特浪漫風格歌曲迷孃渴望歌德
Keywords Schubert, Romantic, Lied, Song, Mignon, Sehnsucht, Goethe
摘要 舒伯特曾將歌德的詩〈唯有知道渴望的人〉六次譜成歌曲,先後歷經十多年,創下他重覆譜曲次數之最高紀錄。本文藉由舒伯特對這首詩的創作探討其歌曲風格,比較他與前人(賴夏德、貝多芬)風格的差異,並分析六次譜曲以觀察其風格的演變。

此研究檢視舒伯特對歌詞作的更動、吟唱節奏及旋律、鋼琴與歌唱聲部的關係、轉調與和聲運用等,發現舒伯特歌曲拓展了原詩的涵義,對題材作出新的詮釋,並且賦予鋼琴重要性,使其成為歌詞與歌唱聲部之外表現音樂不可或缺的要素。他所開創的風格因而被稱為「浪漫風格藝術歌曲」。

〈唯有知道渴望的人〉的創作歷程與迷孃其他歌曲及豎琴手歌曲的創作相關,舒伯特最後將三首迷孃詩歌譜成了連篇歌曲D 877。其中第一首為男女二重唱,第四首為女聲獨唱,均以此詩創作。第一首在曲式及和聲轉調的設計最為突出,而第四首對題材「渴望」作出最佳詮釋。
Abstract Franz Schubert was a great admirer of Johann Wolfgang Goethe's poems. His passion was so great that he set Goethe's “Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt” as many as six times, which was unique for Schubert had never honored any other poets with such dedication. Furthermore, more than ten years separated the 1st(1815) and the last (1825) setting.

This essay will explore Schubert's stylistic innovation, compare his settings to those by his forerunners, Reichardt and Beethoven, and trace his growth into his mature style by analyzing the developments throughout the six settings. Schubertian style will also be proven to be “romantisches Kunstlied” (Romantic Art Song) through examining his operation of text, declamation rhythm, melody, the relationship between singing voice and piano, modulation and harmony, and it will be shown further that each of his settings present a new perspective and broaden the meaning of the poem. In addition, the role of the piano in these settings is increasingly elevated to become of importance equal with the text and the singing voice.

Schubert's settings of “Nur wer die Sehnsucht kennt” were related to the other Mignon's songs and harper's songs. Finally, he set three Mignon's songs as a song cycle D 877, in which both no. 1 (duet) and no. 4 (for soprano) are based on this poem. No. 1 stands out for its musical form, well-planned harmony and modulation. No. 4 gives the best interpretation of “longing.”
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