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第 10  期

學術論文
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二十世紀初西洋眼光中的文人畫:費諾羅沙的理解與誤解
A Western View of Literati Painting in the Early 20th Century: Fenollosa's Understanding and Misunderstanding
作者 巫佩蓉
Author Pei-Jung Wu
關鍵詞 費諾羅沙芬諾洛薩文人畫東西文化交流中日交流傳日中國畫
Keywords Ernest Francisco Fenollosa, literati painting, cultural exchanges, Chinese paintings in Japan
摘要 活躍於十九世紀末、二十世紀初的美國人費諾羅沙(Ernest Francisco Fenollosa, 1853-1908,又譯為芬諾洛薩),在東西美術交流史上,扮演相當重要的角色。他於西潮風行的明治時代(1868-1912),受聘至東京帝國大學教授哲學及經濟學;不過,至日本之後,卻對東亞的美術產生極大的興趣。費氏晚年著作Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art一書,對東亞及西方世界皆有相當重要的影響。今日,無論是探討西方思維方式如何開始影響東亞學者的美術史研究,或是探索二十世紀前後,西方世界如何看待東亞美術作品,都不可忽略費諾羅沙的著作。

現今學界有關費諾羅沙與美術的研究,多偏重於美學理念的探討;筆者則企圖採不同的切入點,著重分析費氏所處時代得見的畫作與其立論之關係。本文探究費諾羅沙著作中對於文人畫的見解,究竟主要是針對理論層次,或是畫作視覺意象呈現的方式?若是後者,費氏批評的對象是哪些具體的畫作?他對某些畫風的意見或偏見,是基於西洋的眼光,或是所謂日本的眼光?費氏對於文人畫的見解,對於日本及西方各有什麼影響?這些議題,不僅關乎費諾羅沙,亦有助於我們進一步瞭解二十世紀前後的美術史觀,以及中日美術交流史中不同的鑑賞觀。
Abstract Ernest Francisco Fenollosa (1853-1908), was a key person in the cultural exchange between the East and the West. He was among the few Western scholars to be invited to teach in the Meiji period (1868-1912) Japan. Although Tokyo Imperial University hired him to teach philosophy and economics, he developed a strong interest in traditional Chinese and Japanese art after arriving in Japan. The book that he wrote in his later years, Epochs of Chinese and Japanese Art, had a great influence in both the East and the West.

In this paper, I will focus on Fenollosa's opinions on literati painting. I will discuss whether his views were based primarily on theory or on his experience of viewing paintings. If it were the latter, which were the paintings that provoked his critical comments? Did these views result from his Western education, or did they come from so-called “Japanese taste”? What were the influences of Fenollosa's opinions in Japan and the West? This study will help us understand the art historical views of the early twentieth century and give us a different perspective on the history of artistic exchanges between China and Japan.
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209
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