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第 68  期

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從「場域」概念看宋詩壇的運作──以文學總集為中心的考察
The Concept of ‘Field’ and the Poetry Circle in Song –Focusing on the Anthologies
作者 凌頌榮
Author Chung-wing Ling
關鍵詞 總集宋詩場域皮耶‧布爾迪厄宋代社會
Keywords Anthologies, Song Poetry, Field, Pierre Bourdieu, Song Society
摘要 本文將聚焦於宋代總集的編纂情況,以及其與宋代詩壇的關係,進而闡明當時的詩人如何藉由這種文獻體裁介入政治、教育等社會範疇。為了有效疏理各類線索,本文擬援引現代法國社會學家皮耶‧布爾迪厄(Pierre Félix Bourdieu)的「場域」(field)概念為討論的根據。從布爾迪厄的論述觀照宋代詩壇的情況,不難發現總集的編纂風氣一方面是「詩學場域」內部的現象,另一方面卻又受到「教育場域」和「政治場域」等外來力量的干預。本文將會分作四個部分:首先是從統計數字、著作特徵等角度入手,疏理宋代總集的整體編纂情況,以求掌握這批著作的全貌,奠定討論的基礎;其次針對「總集類」中的詩派總集,說明「詩學場域」內部對總集的應用情況,以及其意義所在;接著,本文會探討宋代官學和地方書院把總集用於教育的情況;最後則是以成書於南宋末年的《江湖詩集》系列為例子,了解在野的文人如何藉由詩歌總集表達異於當權者的觀點,構成政治上的角力。事實上,宋代的「詩學場域」、「政治場域」和「教育場域」時有交疊,而「總集」概念則不斷出入其中,充分反映出社會的結構及其運作方式。
Abstract This essay is about the publication of anthologies in Song and its relationship with the poetry circle formed by the Song poets. It also shows the way how the poets intervened other social aspects. As the theoretical framework, this essay will introduce the concept of ‘Field’ suggested by Pierre Bourdieu, a French sociologist and philosopher. Analyzing the situation of the poetry circle by Bourdieu’s concept, it shows that the publication of anthologies was an important phenomenon in the ‘field of poetics’ while the powers from the ‘field of education’ and the ‘field of politics’ also frequently intervened in it. This essay contains four parts. First, it talks about how the Songs edited and published their anthologies. The statistics of publication and the features of the books are the focusing point. Next, it discusses the use of anthologies in the competition among the schools of Song poetry. It was an affair occurring inside the ‘field of poetics’. Then, it concerns the anthologies which are used as the textbooks in the education system. Finally, it discusses how the poets who did not belong to the ruling class expressed their standpoints and struggled with the court. The series of Jianghu Shiji [江湖詩集] was a typical example of the issue.
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