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第 30  期

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細讀與嘲謔——《柳如是別傳》讀後隅記
Precise Reading and Jocosity: Notes after Reading “the Biography of Liu Ru-shi”
作者 毛文芳
Author Wen-Fan Mao
關鍵詞 柳如是錢謙益陳寅恪細讀嘲謔
Keywords Liu Ru-shi, Cian Cian-yi, Chen Yin-ko, precise reading, jocosity
摘要 《柳如是別傳》1965年稿竟,1969年作者辭世,遲至1980年始出版。二十世紀史學大師陳寅恪撰寫此書適逢中國鉅變之際,因為發言學者站立位置不同,該書遂成為政治隱喻、心跡迷霧與詮釋衝突的代表作。二十年來,史學家們已為此書作了豐富的解讀。筆者不敢妄評近代史學史事,本文既不擬發抒個人對明清痛史的考據癖,亦不擬針對該書的任何課題作延伸性探索。《別傳》一書充滿文學的興味,作者超凡的想像力已將這部史學鉅構飛躍成一部精彩的小說,他帶著讀者在文獻中穿梭漫遊,留意任何一個縫隙,隨作最精密的解讀。行文中又經常展現嘲諷笑謔十足的陳氏幽默,陳寅恪以迂迴婉轉的方式,反射生命衰殘、世事滄桑與時間流逝帶來的焦慮,諧中帶謔,歡中帶痛。書中一方面有作者強烈的主觀意念貫注其間,同時隱晦歷史中的愛情心理亦為時代沾上艷麗的色彩。在崇偉鉅構之前,筆者僅以一名讀者的角度,拈出「細讀」與「嘲謔」兩個閱讀主軸,各自再擬出不避瑣細、作者亦讀者、填補空隙、心理分析、創造性的詮釋,以及訕笑俗陋、調侃窘態、洞穿心機、同情悲憫、深沈感慨等幾重視角,擇錄鋪排《別傳》一書中的精彩例證,視其為文學研究主體參與的最佳典型。
Abstract “The biography of Liu Ru-shi” was published in 1980. It once brought the historians to a great debate and that has become an important academic event in 20th century. The researcher, however, was attracted to the literary interest in the biography. Chen Yin-ko (the author) used his marvelous imagination to transform this historical masterpiece into a fantastic novel. He led the readers to journey the literatures, to pay attention to every detail, and to make precise inferences. In addition, the writing also shows the author’s sense of humor; it indirectly reflects all kinds of life anxieties. It is witty but jocose and contains both joy and sorrow. The researcher, from the reader’s point of view, pointed out two main reading aspects and introduced excellent examples. The researcher considered this biography as the best model for participation in literature studies.
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