本文主要以海德格（ Martin Heidegger, 1889-1976 ）與沃爾法特（ Gunter Wohlfart, 1943- ）為討論對象。海德格所代表的，可說是二十世紀德國哲學家對於道家思想之最深刻的對話。當然，如同哲學家之所應為，海德格並不是以解釋道家思想為主；他的目的主要在於，藉由與道家的對話，從而利用道家概念來豐富其自身的思想。沃爾法特則更深入道家思想的研究，雖然其本身不太懂中文，但是他參考了德文、英文、法文等西方語文關於道家研究的文獻，也嘗試與漢學家一起逐字解讀老子文本，因此，其作品有一些新的哲學洞見。
This article discusses mainly (on) the interpretation of Daoism by Martin Heidegger and Gunter Wohlfart. Heidegger represents the deepest dialog with Daoism between German philosophers in twenty centuries. His aim is, through the dialog with Daoism, to use the concepts of Daoism to enrich his own thought. Wohlfart on the contrary goes deep into the kernel of Daoism thought. Although he does not know Chinese very well, he refers to German, English and French literatures about Daoism. He also attempts to read Laozi word by word with Sinologists. That is why there are many insights in his works.
This article is divided into four parts:
1• Heidegger's reception of Daoism: the free resonance by philosopher
2• The reception of Daoism by Wohlfart
3• The interpretation of Taoism by Heidegger and Wohlfart
4• Conclusion: The transcultural problems aroused from the philosophical research of Daoism.