Cheng-Zhu's doctrine of “particular principles (manifestations) subject to the universal principle” defines “empirical differentiations” in terms of metaphysical dichotomy which presupposes transcendental identity. That the universal principle is superior to particular principles (manifestations) means differentiations are subject to transcendental identity. Dai Zhen’s organic holism of Qi Theory, nonetheless, argues that the notion of particular principle as principle of individualization belonging to Ying and Yang, which can explain the empirical differentiations and is precisely the principle immanent to the becoming of Dao. This is what Dai Zhen calls “particular principle,” which presupposes an immanent metaphysical system. The distinction of “Universal Qi” and “particular principles” is not a dichotomy of metaphysical substance and empirical entities; for him, particular principles are the immanent principles of becoming of Universal Qi. Although Dai Zhen’s notion of particular principle emphasizes difference and historicity, his interpretative strategy bears traits of conservative archaism. He asserts that interpretations of Confucian classics must not mix up with Buddhism and Daoism. He emphasizes that interpretations of classics must be pure and objective; hence for him, to retrieve the “original meaning” of Confucian classics, it is necessary to expel the influences of language and philosophy that emerge in the historical process.